A beautiful blending of real/complex analysis with number theory. The study involves distribution of prime numbers and other problems and helps giving asymptotic estimates to these.

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1answer
146 views

Asymptotic formula for the number of ways to write a number as the sum of $k$ triangular numbers

How would one derive an asymptotic formula for the number of representations of a number $n$ as the sum of $k$ numbers of the form $\frac{m(m + 1)}{2}$ I think that one could use the circle method, ...
2
votes
2answers
357 views

Exponential Sum Bound

In http://131.220.77.52/files/preprints/diophantine/bruedern/wpminicubefinal.pdf, Bruedern and Wooley mention the following fact on the bottom of page 6: Let ...
1
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2answers
238 views

Asymptotics on prime divisors

Somewhat inspired from the Zsigmondy's theorem is my question. Suppose Let $a_{1}> a_{2}> \cdots > a_{k}$ be nonzero integers, with $k \geq 2$. Let $a(n) : = a_{1}^{n}+\cdots+a_{k}^{n}$ for ...
5
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2answers
179 views

Estimates on derivatives of Bessel function

In Duke, Friedlander and Iwaniec's Erratum on "Bounds for automorphic L–functions. II" They have the following estimates for derivatives of Bessel functions: For $k \geq 2$ \begin{align} & ...
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0answers
23 views

Proof that $G(3)\le 7$ [migrated]

Let $G(k)$ be the minimal $n$ s.t. every sufficiently large integer is the sum of $n$ nonnegative $k$th powers. Does anybody know where I can find Vaughan's proof that $G(3)\le 7$? I can't find a ...
4
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1answer
238 views

Lower bound on the irrationality measure of $\pi$

There seems to be a lot of work on the upper bound for the irrationality measure of $\pi$, but I could not find anything on a lower bound except the general $\mu(\pi)\geq2$. Looks like it is the best ...
3
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0answers
239 views

Is it possible to find explicit formula for the product $\prod_{d|n,\ d>1} (1-\mu(d)/\varphi(d))^{\varphi(d)}$?

I am trying to calculate the following product $$ \prod_{d|n}_{d>1} \left( 1-\frac{\mu(d)}{\varphi(d)} \right)^{\varphi(d)} $$ where the functions $\varphi$ and $\mu$ are Euler's totient and ...
4
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1answer
110 views

Characterizing the newforms s.t. the associated symmetric square $L$-function has a pole

I have a straightforward question. Let $f$ be a holomorphic cusp form of weight $k$, level $N$, and nebentypus $\chi$ that is new in the sense of Atkin-Lehner theory. Write its Fourier expansion at ...
3
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1answer
314 views

Lower bounds on the error term of the prime number theorem

Are there any lower bounds on the error term for the prime number theorem, or in other words, is there a nontrivial $f$ s.t. $$f(x)\ll |\psi(x) - x|$$ where $\psi$ is the Chebyshev function.
3
votes
1answer
346 views

Smallest prime in an arithmetic progression

Let $\{a_n\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ be defined as $a_n = a + bn$ for some $a, b >0,(a, b) = 1$. Are there good bounds on the minimal $k$ s.t. $a_k$ is prime. It is well known that there are infinitely ...
6
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1answer
207 views

lower and upper bound for $\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{(-1)^{\Omega(k)}}k$?

Are there known any lower and upper bounds for $$ \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{(-1)^{\Omega(k)}}k, $$ where $\Omega(n)$ is the number of prime factors counting multiplicities of $n$? Or at least is it known ...
6
votes
2answers
215 views

Divisor sums over values of binary forms of primes

Let $\tau$ be the divisor function, that is $$ \tau(n)=\sharp\{d \in \mathbb{N}, d|n\}. $$ I was wondering if anyone has ever proved an asymptotic estimate for the sum $$S(x):=\sum_{p,q\leq ...
11
votes
1answer
637 views

Szemeredi's theorem in the Gaussian integers

Suppose that $S\subseteq\mathbb{Z}[i]$ has the following properties: For convenience, let $A_n = \{z : z\in\mathbb{Z}[i], \text{Nm}(z)\le n\}$ $$\limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty} \frac{|S\cap ...
4
votes
3answers
169 views

Expression for the derivative of Eisenstein series $G_2$

I am new to number theory, so I am guessing this is a standard formula. I would be grateful for a reference: We know that the Eisenstein series $G_2$ is quasimodular of level $SL_2(\mathbb Z)$, so ...
9
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1answer
308 views

Squarefree numbers $n$ such that $432n+1$ is also squarefree

This is a second attempt (see Primes $p$ such that $432 p +1$ is prime) Is the set of squarefree numbers $n$ such that $n(432 n+1)$ is also squarefree known to be infinite? Fact: the number of such ...
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1answer
296 views

Primes $p$ such that $432 p +1$ is prime [closed]

Is the set of prime numbers $p$ such that $432 p + 1$ is also prime infinite? It doesn't follow from Dirichlet's theorem as far as I can tell.
5
votes
2answers
577 views

The shortest interval for which the prime number theorem holds [closed]

It is well known that the prime number theorem on the form \begin{align*} \pi(x+y) - \pi(x) \sim \frac{y}{\log (x+y)} \end{align*} breaks down for short enough intervals, e.g. taking $y=(\log ...
6
votes
1answer
646 views

Probability that a positive integer is the euler phi function of another positive integer

Define $f(n) = |\{m : m\le n, \exists k \text{ s.t. }\phi(k) = m\}|$. Clearly, $f(n)\le \left\lfloor \frac{n}{2}\right\rfloor + 1$ since $\phi(n)$ is even for all $n > 2$. Is ...
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2answers
112 views

Asymptotics and error terms for an arithmetic function built upon $\omega$ and $\Omega$ functions

For any real number $x$, let's define $Om_{k}(x)$ as the number of positive integers $m$ below $x$ such that $\Omega(m)-\omega(m)=k$, where $\omega(n)$ is the number of distinct primes dividing $n$, ...
8
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2answers
407 views

Incomplete Kloosterman sum

I am interested in an upper bound on the following incomplete Kloosterman sum $$ \sum_{\substack{x=1 \\ x+_{_{\bf Z}}x^{-1}>p}}^{p-1}e\left(\frac{x+x^{-1}}{p}\right).$$ Using the Weil's bound it ...
2
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0answers
151 views

Kloosterman-like sum with inverse to different moduli

In some recent work, the following strange-looking exponential sum arose: $$ \sum_k \sum_r \sum_s e\bigg( \frac{r \bar s^{(r)} \bar k^{(r^2+s^2)}}{r^2+s^2} \bigg). $$ Here $e(x) = e^{2\pi i x}$ as ...
2
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0answers
144 views

Arguments for the second Hardy–Littlewood conjecture being false?

Assume that $x,y > 2$, and that $x<y$. Then the second Hardy–Littlewood conjecture states that $$\pi(x + y) - \pi(y) \leq \pi(x).$$ We can easily justify this heuristically, since $$ ...
17
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1answer
654 views

The conjecture of Montgomery and Soundararajan on primes in short intervals: Empirical inconsistencies?

Assume that $y/ \log x \rightarrow \infty$ and that $y/x \rightarrow 0$. Then, from a conjecture by Montgomery and Soundararajan, we expect the number of primes in the interval $[x,x+y]$ to be ...
0
votes
0answers
267 views

Arithmetic progression and average of two prime numbers

Let $A=(a_n : n \in \mathbb{N})$ be the sequence given by: $$ \ a_n = a_1 + (n - 1)d,\quad a_1,\ d,\ n \in \mathbb N,\quad d\gt a_1,\quad \gcd(a_1,\ d)=1. $$ For all terms of $A$ greater than $\ ...
2
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1answer
231 views

Proof of the Friedlander–Iwaniec theorem

Does anybody know where I could find the proof of the Friedlander–Iwaniec theorem. The link that I find when I search for it is http://www.pnas.org/content/94/4/1054.full.pdf+html, but this seems more ...
5
votes
0answers
241 views

Which L-functions are not “Langlands-Shahidi L-functions”?

The Langlands-Shahidi method, among other things, obtains certain L-functions from the constant term of Eisenstein series attached to so-called $(G,M)$ pairs, where $G$ is a reductive group, $M$ a ...
9
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2answers
469 views

Bound on gcd of two integers

Well this is a problem I was fiddling with. I came up with it but it probably is not original. Suppose $a\in \mathbb{N}$ is not a perfect square. Then show that : ...
16
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1answer
381 views

Covering a set with geometric progressions

Consider the set $S_n=\{1,2,\cdots ,n\}$. What is the minimum number of distinct geometric progressions that cover $S_n$? Let us call this number $a_n$. I was wondering about this number after doing a ...
8
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0answers
154 views

Symmetric Fifth Power Lift of GL(2) Automorphic Form

Let $\pi$ be an automorphic representation of $GL(2)/\mathbb{Q}$. For simplicity, you can take it to be a Maass form for $SL(2,\mathbb Z)$. Kim, Shahidi, Gelbart-Jacquet prove that $$L(s, \pi, ...
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0answers
114 views

Order of individual Fourier coefficient of a Maass form

Let $D$ be a definite quaternion division algebra over $\mathbb{Q}$ and $\mathcal{O}$ be an Eichler order of $D$. Let $F$ be a Maass form in $L^2(PGL_2(\mathcal{O})\backslash ...
4
votes
1answer
179 views

looking for reference on dihedral, tetrahedral, or octahedral forms

I am looking for a reference on dihedral, tetrahedral, or octahedral forms. As far as I read, they are some cuspidal automorphic forms on $GL(2)$ induced from $GL(1)$. Dihedral is from $GL(1)/K$ to ...
4
votes
1answer
153 views

Log weight removal in general (weaker) prime number theorem

Let $a_n$ be a sequence of non-negative numbers. Assume that $$\limsup _{X\to \infty}\frac{\sum_{p\leq X} a_p\log p}{X}\leq 1.$$ Can we prove that $$\limsup _{X\to \infty}\frac{\sum_{p\leq X} ...
3
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1answer
127 views

A question on the big-O value of the complex integral especially in the number theory

My question is quite simple and elementary. Let $A(x)=\sum_{1}^{x}a(n)$ and $\alpha(s)=\sum_{1}^{\infty}a(n)n^{-s}$. Then, as we know, $$ A(x)= ...
7
votes
1answer
241 views

Is the adjoint L-function on GL(m) holomorphic?

Let $\pi$ be an automorphic representation on GL($m$)/$\mathbb{Q}$. Define $$L(s,\pi,Ad):=\frac{L(s,\pi\times\overline{\pi})}{\zeta(s)}.$$ This is an L-function with euler products of degree $m^2-1$. ...
5
votes
1answer
207 views

absolute convergence of Rankin-Selberg series

Let $\pi$ and $\pi'$ be two general automorphic representation on $GL(n)$ and $GL(n')$ over $\mathbb{Q}$. I heard that the rankin-selberg convolution L-function $L(s,\pi\times\pi')$ is absolutely ...
6
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0answers
120 views

Eisenstein series over a definite division algebra

Let $D$ be the definite quaternion division algebra over $\mathbb{Q}$. $\mathcal{O}$ is a maximal order inside $D$, let's fix $\mathcal{O}$ to be the Hurwitz quaternion. Let ...
7
votes
1answer
173 views

standard zero free region of automorphic L-function on GL(N)

Let $L(s,\pi)$ be the standard(Godement-Jacquet) $L$-function of $\pi$, where $\pi$ is a cuspidal automorphic represetation of $GL(m,A_Q)$. What's the standard zero-free region for $L(s,\pi)$? any ...
5
votes
1answer
189 views

$LCM(q-1,\cdots,q^n-1)=q^{\frac{3}{\pi^2} n^2+o(n)}$

I am looking for a proof of the equality in the title (where $q\in\mathbb N$, ($q\ge2$)). Does anyone know such a proof? Thanks in advance
4
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1answer
192 views

Uniformity of the distribution of the prime numbers on the prime residue classes (mod $m$)

Given positive integers $m$, $r$ and $n$, let $\pi(m,r,n)$ denote the number of prime numbers $p \leq n$ in the residue class $r$ (mod $m$). Further let $1 = r_1 < r_2 < \dots < ...
5
votes
1answer
106 views

Functional equation and conductor for a Rankin-Selberg convolution

Let $f$ be a Modular form/Maass form on $GL(2)$ with level $N$ and character $\eta$ and Fourier coefficients $a(n)$. The Rankin-Selberg convolution $$L(s,f\times\bar f)=\sum ...
2
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0answers
212 views

Relation between Maier's theorem and a conjecture of Montgomery and Soundararajan

Let us consider the number of primes in the interval $[N,N+h]$, with $h\leq N$. According to the answer given by Lucia to a previous question on the distribution of primes, it is natural to consider ...
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0answers
102 views

Prime counting function with a form of finite product using perron's formula

There's a form of complex integral what Riemann obtained to finding $\pi (x)$, $$ \pi^{*}(x)=\int_{L}\frac{\log \zeta (s)}{s}x^{s}ds, (1)$$ we already know that it lead us to the Prime Number ...
4
votes
1answer
572 views

What is the critical idea behind Hardy-Littlewood circle method?

I want to know what the critical idea behind Hardy-Littlewood circle method is. It seems that they divide the circle into major arcs and minor arcs to ignore the singularities of generating function ...
0
votes
0answers
116 views

Non existence (or existence) of a set that is equidistributed modulo $q$ for every $q$

I have been thinking about some set that is equidistributed modulo $q$, uniformly in $q$ in some sense. I was starting to think this particular condition, which I describe below, is too strong and ...
15
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1answer
749 views

Interactions between (set theory, model theory) and (algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory ,…)

Set theory and model theory have many applications outside of logic, in particular in algebra, topology, analysis, ... On the other hand model theory, in particular after Hrushovski, found many ...
7
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1answer
407 views

Major arcs in the proof that every odd number is the sum of at most 5 primes

In his proof that all odd numbers greater than 1 are the sum of at most 5 primes, Terence Tao uses one large major arc around 0 rather than small ones around the rationals, which I am more accustomed ...
3
votes
1answer
153 views

Wiener-Ikehara tauberian theorem and order of pole at s=1

In the introduction to Akshay Venkatesh's thesis "Limiting Forms of the Trace Formula" we have the following statement : "For, in summing over primes, the limit ...
25
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1answer
713 views

Is it possible to show that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu(n)}{\sqrt{n}}$ diverges?

Let $\mu(n)$ denote the Mobius function with the well-known Dirichlet series representation $$ \frac{1}{\zeta(s)} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu(n)}{n^{s}}. $$ Basic theorems about Dirichlet series ...
3
votes
1answer
249 views

An introduction to sieve method and their application, Cojocaru & Murty

On page 188. Lemma 10.2.3 is $\sum_{\substack{\delta \leq x \\ 2 \nmid \delta}}\frac{\mu^{2}(\delta)}{\phi_{1}(\delta)} = A_{1}log(x) +A_{2} + O(\frac{1}{x^{1/4}})$ for positive $A_{1}$, $A_{2}$. ...
2
votes
0answers
151 views

Why believe the Elliott-Halberstam conjecture?

I have seen justifications for various conjectures in analytic number theory, e.g. the (generalized) Riemann hypothesis, the Chowla conjectures, etc. justified by a heuristics in which the relevant ...