# Tagged Questions

Informally, an algorithm is a set of explicit instructions used to solve a problem (e.g. Euclid's algorithm for computing the greatest common divisor of two integers). For more specific questions on algorithms, this tag may be used in conjunction with the approximation-algorithms, algorithmic-...

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### Distinct numbers in multiplication table

Consider multiplication table for numbers $1,2,\cdots, n$. How many different numbers are there? That is how many different numbers of the form $ij$ with $1 \le i, j \le n$ are there? I'm interested ...
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### Decidability of equality of expressions built using 1,+,-,*,/,^

Consider expressions built using number $1$, arithmetical operators $+, -, *, /$ and exponentiation ^ (in case of multiple values, the principal value is assumed, the same way as it implemented in ...
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### When are (finite) simplicial complexes (smooth) manifolds?

Hi, is there an algorithm that determines if a given simplicial complex is a.) a manifold b.) a smooth manifold c.) homotopy equivalent to a manifold d.) a real algebraic variety ?
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### Checking whether given binary operation is a group operation

Given a binary function $f: [1..n] \times [1..n] \to [1..n]$ how to check that this operation is a group operation on $[1..n]$? It's obvious that this can be done in $O(n^3)$ time just by checking ...
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### Can Tarski decide constructibility in elementary geometry?

Can the decision routine for Tarski's Elementary geometry be extended to decide when an existence claim in that theory can be instantiated by a compass and straightedge construction? The answer does ...
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### Algorithm for embedding a graph with metric constraints

Suppose I have a graph $G$ with vertex set $V$, edge set $E \subseteq {V \choose 2}$, and a weight function $w:E \to \mathbb{R}^{+}$. Is there a nice algorithmic way to decide if there is an ...
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### an algebraic variety for a boolean circuit

There is a polynomial reduction from a $3-CNF$ $SAT$ problem to some system of polynomial equations over $\mathbb{F}_2$. I mean there is polynomial reduction $F$ such that for every boolean ...
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### What is wrong with this deterministic algorithm efficiently generating large primes?

According to PolyMath (Strong) conjecture. There exists deterministic algorithm which, when given an integer k, is guaranteed to find a prime of at least k digits in length of time polynomial in k....
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### Minimum number of unit fractions to sum up a given positive rational

For any positive $p,q\in\mathbb{N}$ there is a finite subset $S$ of $\{\frac{1}{n}:n\in\mathbb{N}, n\geq 1\}$ such that $\sum_{s\in S} s=\frac{p}{q}$, see this article by Paul Erdös and Sherman Stein (...
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### Reporting all faces in a planar graph

Hi, I was looking to traverse a planar graph and report all the faces in the graph (vertices in either clockwise or counterclockwise order). I have build a random planar graph generator that creates a ...
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### How hard is it to compute the number of prime factors of a given integer?

I asked a related question on this mathoverflow thread. That question was promptly answered. This is a natural followup question to that one, which I decided to repost since that question is answered. ...
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### What is the time complexity of computing sin(x) to t bits of precision?

Short version of the question: Presumably, it's poly$(t)$. But what polynomial, and could you provide a reference? Long version of the question: I'm sort of surprised to be asking this, because ...
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### Does anyone want a pretty Maass form?

A few months ago, I was curious about some properties of Maass cusp forms, of nonabelian arithmetic origin. As a result, I went through a somewhat predictable process of finding a totally real $A_4$ ...
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### improving known bounds for Pierce expansions; cash prize

Here's a problem that I thought of back in 1978 or so, and only a little progress has been made on it since then. I still think about it from time to time, but probably not that many people have ...
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### does the “convolution theorem” apply to weaker algebraic structures?

The Convolution Theorem is often exploited to compute the convolution of two sequences efficiently: take the (discrete) Fourier transform of each sequence, multiply them, and then perform the inverse ...
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### Evidence for integer factorization is in $P$

Peter Sarnak believes that integer factorization is in $P$. It is a well-known open problem in TCS to identify the real complexity class of integer factorization. Take a look at this link for Peter ...
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### Algorithm to check is representation irreducible ? Algorithm to decompose the reducible one ?

Question 1 Given a representation of a finite group, what algorithm can be used to check is it irreducible or not ? (Main case - complex numbers, comments on other cases are also welcome. "Given" ...
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### Decidability of equality of elementary expressions

In the following definition the term expression is to be understood as a finite tree built from formal symbols without any predefined meaning assigned to them. Define the set $\mathcal{E}$ of ...
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### Where on the internet I can find database of graphs?

I am studying graph algorithms. I need database of graphs on which I can test my algorithms. Where can I find reliable database of graphs of all kinds? Thanks!
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### When can a freely moving sphere escape from a 'cage' defined by a set of impassible coordinates?

To ask this question in a (hopefully) more direct way: Please imagine that I take a freely moving ball in 3-space and create a 'cage' around it by defining a set of impassible coordinates, $S_c$ (i.e....
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### Is there an algorithm to solve quadratic Diophantine equations?

I was asked two questions related to Diophantine equations. Can one find all integer triplets $(x,y,z)$ satisfying $x^2 + x = y^2 + y + z^2 + z$? I mean some kind of parametrization which gives all ...
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### Differential ideal membership problem

We know that in the ordinary algebra ideal case, the ideal membership problem can be solved by the Grobner Base theory, then, is there a counterpart theory in the differential ideal case? To be ...
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### A generalization of the triangle counting problem for simple weighted graphs

One nice identity is that $$\operatorname{tr}(A^3)/6$$ counts the number of triangles of a graph with adjacency matrix $A$. It also implies that triangle counting in a graph can be performed in sub-...
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### Algorithm for Low Discrepancy Sequence of Hamilton Cycles in Complete Graphs

Are there deterministic algorithms that generate a sequence of Hamilton Tours that is superior to a sequence of randomly chosen tours, when applied to the TSP (by applying to the TSP, I understand ...
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### Is equality of terms for “real” numbers with roots, logarithm, exponential, sin, cos, and other trigonometric operations decidable with a Turing-machine?

If yes, how? Also, I know you can't do it for arbitrary statements about real numbers, but that's not what I'm asking, and by "real" numbers, I mean the numbers constructible from 1, -, /, and the ...
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### What is God's number for the WrapSlide puzzle?

WrapSlide is a slide-puzzle (reminding of Rubik's Cube) consisting of a 6x6 grid of coloured tiles which are separated into four quadrants of 3x3 tiles. When it is unmixed all the tiles in a quadrant ...
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### What's the current state of one-rule semi-Thue system termination problem?

What's the current state of one-rule semi-Thue system termination problem? Search produces a lot of references, but it's hard to find out if decidability of this problem has been proven or not.
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### How to compute the rook polynomial of a Ferrers board?

Given a Ferrers board of shape $(b_1,\ldots,b_m)$, we define $r_k$ as number of ways to place $k$ non-attacking rooks (as in Chess). In section 2.4 of Stanley's Enumerative Combinatorics (vol. 1) it's ...
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### Find all faces in a graph from list of edges

I have the information from a undirected graph stored in a 2D array. The array stores all of the edges between nodes, e.g. graph[3] might be equal to [1,8,30] and represents the fact that node 3 ...
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### Are surjectivity and injectivity of polynomial functions from $\mathbb{Q}^n$ to $\mathbb{Q}$ algorithmically decidable?

Is there an algorithm which, given a polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$, decides whether the mapping $f: \mathbb{Q}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ is surjective, respectively, injective? -- And ...
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### Effective algorithm to test positivity

Let $f(x_1,\ldots, x_n)$ be a real polynomial in several variables. Is there an effective algorithm to test whether $f$ is positive (or nonnegative) on the whole of ${\mathbb{R}}^n$?
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### Network flows with capacities on pairs of edges

Take a standard network flow problem: a directed graph with nonnegative capacities on each edge, a source $s$, a sink $t$. We all know how to find the maximum flow from $s$ to $t$. Now add edge-pair ...
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### Stirling Number of first kind : Implementation

Hi everybody, Does there exist an explicit formula for the Stirling Numbers of the First Kind which are given by the formula $$x(x-1)\cdots (x-n+1) = \sum_{k=0}^n s(n,k)x^k.$$ Otherwise, what is ...
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### How much does a quantum oracle to find a needle in a haystack really cost?

Among the basic algorithms of quantum computations Lov Grover's result on quantum search stands out, both in regards to its intrinsic interest, and for its undisputable elegance. Grover's algorithm ...
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### Comparing different Euclidean algorithms on a Euclidean domain

I have posted this question at stackexchange (502413), without responses until now. In the papers by T. Motzkin: The Euclidean Algorithm, Bull. AMS 55, 1949, pp. 1142--1146 and P. Samuel: About ...
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### Mertens' function in time $O(\sqrt x)$

This MathOverflow question seems to indicate that the state of the art in computing $$M(x)=\sum_{n\le x}\mu(n)$$ takes time $\Theta(n^{2/3}(\log\log n)^{1/3}),$ which matches my understanding. ...
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### Building a polyhedron from areas of its faces

Is there a known algorithm which, given a finite multiset (unordered list) of integers $A$, returns a yes/no answer for ...
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### Modular polynomials for elliptic curves point counting

The Schoof-Elkies-Atkin (SEA) algorithm (for counting points on elliptic curves over a finite field) performs computations over polynomials modulo some modular polynomials. Originally the "classical" ...