The algebraic-number-theory tag has no wiki summary.

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### How small can a sum of a few roots of unity be?

Let $n$ be a large natural number, and let $z_1, \ldots, z_{10}$ be (say) ten $n^{th}$ roots of unity: $z_1^n = \ldots = z_{10}^n = 1$. Suppose that the sum $S = z_1+\ldots+z_{10}$ is non-zero. How ...

**45**

votes

**5**answers

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### If a unitsquare is partitioned into 101 triangles, is the area of one at least 1%?

Update: The answer to the title question is not necessarily, as pointed out by Tapio and Willie. I would be more interested in lower bounds.
Monsky's famous and amazingly tricky proof says that if we ...

**40**

votes

**13**answers

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### Erratum for Cassels-Froehlich

Edit 25 April 2010: I have a physical copy of the new printing of the book. I can only assume the LMS is now selling it (but have no details).
IMPORTANT EDIT: THE RESULTS ARE IN! Ok, the deadline has ...

**35**

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**7**answers

3k views

### How to picture $\mathbb{C}_p$?

I hope this is appropriate for mathoverflow. Understanding $\mathbb{C}_p$ has always been something of a stumbling block for me. A standard thing to do in number theory is to take the completion ...

**32**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Formal group laws and L-series

Let E be an elliptic curve, let $L(s) = \sum a_n n^{-s}$
denote its L-function, and set
$$ f(x) = \sum a_n \frac{x^n}{n}. $$
Then Honda has observed that
$$ F(X,Y) = f^{-1}(f(X) + f(Y)) $$
defines ...

**31**

votes

**1**answer

875 views

### Is my field algebraically closed?

For a field $L$, let $\widetilde L$ be the splitting field of all irreducible polynomials over $L$ having prime-power degree.
Question: Do we have $\widetilde{\mathbf Q}=\overline{\mathbf Q}$?
...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

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### Integers not represented by $ 2 x^2 + x y + 3 y^2 + z^3 - z $

EDIT, 9 March 2014: when I asked this in 2010, I did not have the courage of my convictions, and so did not ask for an if and only if proof, as Kevin Buzzard quite properly pointed out. Such problems ...

**29**

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**3**answers

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### If Spec Z is like a Riemann surface, what's the analogue of integration along a contour?

Rings of functions on a nonsingular algebraic curve (which, over $\mathbb{C}$, are holomorphic functions on a compact Riemann surface) and rings of integers in number fields are both examples of ...

**28**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### On what kind of objects do the Galois groups act?

I am neither number theorist nor algebraic geometer. I am wondering
whether Galois groups of number fields (say the absolute Galois
group $Gal(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\mathbb{Q})$) act on objects which
...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

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### How would Hilbert and Weber think about the Langlands programme?

Explanations to a general mathematical audience about the Langlands programme often advertise it as "non-abelian class field theory". They usually begin as follows: a modern style formulation of ...

**27**

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**6**answers

923 views

### Patterns among integer-distance points

Mark each point of $\mathbb{N}^2$ ($\mathbb{N}$ the natural numbers) if its
Euclidean distance from the origin is an integer. One obtains a plot like this, symmetric about the $45^\circ$ diagonal.
...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Class Numbers and 163

This is a bit fluffier of a question than I usually aim for, so apologies in advance if this doesn't pass the smell test for suitability.
Likely my favorite fun fact in all of number theory is the ...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Do the algebraic integers form a free abelian group?

It is a well-known fact, proved in every introductory textbook on algebraic number theory, that if $K$ is an algebraic number field, i.e. a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}$, then its ring ...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

946 views

### What happened to Emmy Noether's *Zukunftsphantasie* ?

Recenly I came across Peter Roquette's article On the history of Artin's $L$-functions and conductors (23 July 2003) in which he talks about some letters from Emil Artin and Emmy Noether to Helmut ...

**25**

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**3**answers

1k views

### Galois Groups of a family of polynomials

I've stumbled across the family of polynomials
$ f_p(x) = x^{p-1} + 2 x^{p-2} + \cdots + (p-1) x + p $,
where $p$ is an odd prime. It's not too hard to show that $f_p(x)$ is irreducible over ...

**25**

votes

**0**answers

372 views

### Degree 17 number fields ramified only at 2

The number $17$ is the smallest odd number that occurs as the degree of a number field $K/\mathbb{Q}$ for which the only finite prime that ramifies is $2$. The non-existence for $n < 17$ follows ...

**24**

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**3**answers

2k views

### Why aren't there more classifying spaces in number theory?

Much of modern algebraic number theory can be phrased in the framework of group cohomology. (Okay, this is a bit of a stretch -- much of the part of algebraic number theory that I'm interested ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Ramanujan and algebraic number theory

One out of the almost endless supply of identities discovered by Ramanujan
is the following:
$$ \sqrt[3]{\sqrt[3]{2}-1} = \sqrt[3]{\frac19} - \sqrt[3]{\frac29} + \sqrt[3]{\frac49}, $$
which has the ...

**24**

votes

**0**answers

705 views

### Derivative of Class number of real quadratic fields

Let $\Delta$ be a fundamental quadratic discriminant, set $N = |\Delta|$,
and define the Fekete polynomials
$$ F_N(X) = \sum_{a=1}^N \Big(\frac{\Delta}a\Big) X^a. $$
Define
$$ f_N(X) = ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

900 views

### Is pi = log_a(b) for some integers a, b > 1?

Are there integers $a, b > 1$ such that $\pi = \log_a(b)$?
Or equivalently: are there integers $a,b > 1$ such that $a^\pi = b$?
Note that the transcendence of $\pi$ makes this a problem - ...

**20**

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**0**answers

921 views

### Orders in number fields

Let $K$ be a degree $n$ extension of ${\mathbb Q}$ with ring of integers $R$. An order in $K$ is a subring with identity of $R$ which is a ${\mathbb Z}$-module of rank $n$.
Question: Let $p$ be an ...

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**9**answers

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### What are some interesting problems in the intersection of Algebraic Number Theory and Algebraic Topology?

I'm a beginning graduate student and while my background is primarily in algebraic number theory, I've found myself a bit smitten with the subject of algebraic topology recently after only having read ...

**19**

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**4**answers

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### The Riemann Hypothesis and the Langlands program

On page 263 of this book review appears the following:
Given the centrality of L-functions to the Langlands program, nothing would seem more natural (than a presentation of elementary algebraic ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

331 views

### Proportion of irreducible polynomials $P$ such that $\mathbf Z[X]/(P)$ is the ring of integers of $\mathbf Q[X]/(P)$

I know that number fields have been the object of many statistical experiments.
Is there some kind of heuristics for the following?
Fix a degree $d$ and fix a bound $N$ on the coefficients of a monic ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### How often are irrational numbers well-approximated by rationals?

Suppose $x\in \mathbb{R}$ is irrational, with irrationality measure $\mu=\mu(x)$; this means that the inequality $|x-\frac{p}{q}|< q^{-\lambda}$ has infinitely many solutions in integers $p,q$ if ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

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### Are there any Hecke operators acting on an elliptic curve with additive reduction that I don't know about?

I could have made this question very brief but instead I've maximally gone the other way and explained a huge amount of background. I don't know whether I put off readers or attract them this way. The ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

505 views

### Décomposition des nombres premiers dans des extensions non abéliennes

Gauß famously determined the cubic character of $2$ in his Disquisitiones : $2$ is a cube modulo a prime number $p\equiv1\mod3$ if and only if $p=x^2+27y^2$ for some $x,y\in\mathbf{Z}$. This implies ...

**19**

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**1**answer

940 views

### Weil Conjectures for Number Fields

Let $K$ be a number field with integral basis $\{\omega_1,\ldots,\omega_n\}$.
The affine variety $A_K$ defined by
$$ N_{K/\{\mathbb Q}}(X_1 \omega_1 + \ldots + X_n \omega_n) = 1 $$
is an algebraic ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

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### Fermat's Last Theorem in the cyclotomic integers.

Kummer proved that there are no non-trivial solutions to the Fermat equation FLT(n): $x^n + y^n = z^n$ with $n > 2$ natural and $x,y,z$ elements of a regular cyclotomic ring of integers $K$.
I am ...

**18**

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**1**answer

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### Number of distinct values taken by x^x^…^x with parentheses inserted in all possible ways

For what positive x's the number of distinct values taken by x^x^...^x with parentheses inserted in all possible ways is not represented by the sequence A000081? Is it exactly the set of positive ...

**18**

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**1**answer

861 views

### What is the ring of integers of the Pythagorean field?

Following Hilbert, we call the complex numbers constructible via
compass and straight-edge the field of Euclidean numbers, and
the totally real such numbers the field of Pythagorean numbers. (Among ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

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### Potential modularity and the Ramanujan conjecture

A little background: Let $f(z)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} a(n) e^{2\pi i nz}$ be a classical holomorphic cuspidal eigenform on $\Gamma_1(N)$, of weight $k \geq 2$ normalized with $a(1)=1$. The Ramanujan ...

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**3**answers

660 views

### What's the analogue of the Hilbert class field in the following analogy?

There's a wonderful analogy I've been trying to understand which asserts that field extensions are analogous to covering spaces, Galois groups are analogous to deck transformation groups, and ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

961 views

### A question about non-norm-euclidean real quadratic fields

After lurking MO for a while, I decided I'd jump in. Why not start with a question?
Specifically, I have a question about a natural set that sort of "measures" the failure of a real quadratic field ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

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### Avoiding Minkowski's theorem in algebraic number theory.

For any course in algebraic number theory, one must prove the finiteness of class number and also Dirichlet's unit theorem. The standard proof uses Minkowski's theorem. Is there a way to avoid it?
...

**16**

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**1**answer

449 views

### Is there a known example of a curve X of genus > 1 over Q such that we know the number of points of X over the n-th cyclotomic field, for every n?

By Falting's theorem, these numbers are of course finite. Is there an example where we can explicitly compute them for every $n$?
Thank you!

**16**

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**3**answers

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### Conceptual understanding of the Gross-Zagier theorem.

The Gross-Zagier paper "Heegner points and derivatives of $L$-series", is really computational and hard to plow through. It seems it is futile to read it as such and one must look for a more ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Commutative Algebra with a View Toward Algebraic Number Theory

Someone asked me this today, and I don't know what the standard answer is:
Is there an analogue of David Eisenbud's rather amazing Commutative Algebra With a View Toward Algebraic Geometry but with a ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

684 views

### Cyclotomic polynomials evaluated at roots of unity

Dear MO_World,
I'm working on an ergodic theory question (about a generalization of eigenfunctions for measure-preserving transformations) and have run into a number theory question concerning ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

777 views

### Class number parity in pure cubic number fields

Consider the family of pure cubic number fields
$K = {\mathbb Q}(\sqrt[3]{m})$ for $m = a^3 \pm 3$.
Proposition. If $4 \mid a$ and $m$ is cubefree, then the
class number of $K$ is even.
Proof. Let ...

**16**

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**0**answers

652 views

### Most “natural” proof of the existence of Hilbert class fields

Assume that you have proved the two inequalities of class field theory, and that you want to show that the Hilbert class field, i.e., the maximal unramified abelian extension, of a number field $K$ ...

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**3**answers

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### Regulators of Number fields and Elliptic Curves

There is supposed to be a strong analogy between the arithmetic of number fields and the arithmetic of elliptic curves. One facet of this analogy is given by the class number formula for the leading ...

**15**

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**2**answers

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### Context for “Coronidis Loco” from Weil's Basic Number Theory

In Samuel James Patterson's article titled Gauss Sums in The Shaping of Arithmetic after C. F. Gauss’s Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Patterson says
"Hecke [proved] a beautiful theorem on the different ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

700 views

### Can Eisenstein's lattice point proof of quadratic reciprocity be generalized?

I'm referring to this proof. The key formula ("Eisenstein's Lemma") is
$$\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=(-1)^{\sum_{u}\lfloor\frac{qu}{p}\rfloor},\text{ where $u=2,4,\ldots,p-1$}$$
The sum in the exponent ...

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**3**answers

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### sum of squares in ring of integers

Lagrange proved that every (positive) rational integer is a sum of 4 squares.
Are there general results like this for ring of integers of a number field? Is this class field theory?
Explicity, ...

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**2**answers

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### Is there an algebraic number that cannot be expressed using only elementary functions?

(this is basically a repost of a question I asked at M.SE last year)
Is there an explicit real algebraic number (such that we can write its minimal polynomial and a rational isolating interval) that ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

985 views

### Algorithm generalizing continued fractions for non-quadratic algebraic numbers

The continued fraction algorithm generates an integer sequence which terminates for a rational number, is periodic for the roots of irreducible integer quadratics, and is non-periodic for other ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

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### Interactions between (set theory, model theory) and (algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory ,…)

Set theory and model theory have many applications outside of logic, in particular in algebra, topology, analysis, ...
On the other hand model theory, in particular after Hrushovski, found many ...

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**1**answer

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### If p is a prime congruent to 9 mod 16, can 4 divide the class number of Q(p^(1/4))?

When $p$ is a prime $\equiv9\bmod16$, the class number, $h$, of $\mathbb Q(p^{1/4})$ is known to be even. In
[Charles J. Parry,
A genus theory for quartic fields.
Crelle's Journal 314 (1980), ...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

731 views

### Etale coverings of certain open subschemes in Spec O_K

Although my number theory is really weak, I'm trying to understand the notion of etale coverings in this context. I think this could provide a very interesting point of view.
Let $U$ be an open ...