Algebraic varieties, stacks, sheaves, schemes, moduli spaces, complex geometry, quantum cohomology.

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189
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7answers
94k views

Philosophy behind Mochizuki's work on the ABC conjecture

Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...
34
votes
5answers
3k views

Is there a “geometric” intuition underlying the notion of normal varieties?

I first got concious of the notion of normal varieties around 3 years ago and despite the fact that by now I can manipulate with it a bit, this notion still puzzles me a lot. One thing that strikes me ...
108
votes
33answers
60k views

Best Algebraic Geometry text book? (other than Hartshorne)

I think (almost) everyone agrees that Hartshorne's Algebraic Geometry is still the best. Then what might be the 2nd best? It can be a book, preprint, online lecture note, webpage, etc. One suggestion ...
80
votes
6answers
8k views

what mistakes did the Italian algebraic geometers actually make?

It's "well-known" that the 19th century Italian school of algebraic geometry made great progress but also started to flounder due to lack of rigour, possibly in part due to the fact that foundations ...
33
votes
6answers
3k views

Geometric / physical / probabilistic interpretations of Riemann zeta(n>1)?

What are some physical, geometric, or probabilistic interpretations of the values of the Riemann zeta function at the positive integers greater than one? I've found some examples: 1) In MO-Q111339 ...
26
votes
8answers
2k views

When are there enough projective sheaves on a space X?

This question is being asked on behalf of a colleague of mine. Let X be a topological space. It is well known that the abelian category of sheaves on X has enough injectives: that is, every sheaf ...
28
votes
2answers
2k views

What interesting/nontrivial results in Algebraic geometry require the existence of universes?

Brian Conrad indicated a while ago that many of the results proven in AG using universes can be proven without them by being very careful (link). I'm wondering if there are any results in AG that ...
24
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is there a connection between enumerative geometry and nonlinear waves?

Recently I encountered in a class the fact that there is a generating function of Gromov--Witten invariants that satisfies the Korteweg--de Vries hierarchy. Let me state the fact more precisely. ...
23
votes
2answers
4k views

The error in Petrovski and Landis' proof of the 16th Hilbert problem

Edit:For a recent progress on the Hilbert 16th problem see the following note which consider an infinite dimensional nature for this (apparently 2 dimensional) amazing problem . Best wishes for ...
11
votes
3answers
915 views

What is the difference between Grothendieck groups K_0(X) vs K^0(X) on schemes?

More specifically, I was wondering if there are well-known conditions to put on $X$ in order to make $K_0(X)\simeq K^0(X)$. Wikipedia says they are the same if $X$ is smooth. It seems to me that you ...
3
votes
1answer
247 views

Obtaining non-normal varieties by pushout

In his answer to this MO question, Karl Schwede claimed that every non-normal variety can be obtained by an appropriate pushout diagram, as sketched in that answer. This would give substance to the ...
6
votes
2answers
457 views

Is $G/T$ a projective variety?

Let $G$ be a semisimple Lie group and $T$ be its maximal torus. Can we say that $G/T$ is a projective variety?. Is there any proof or counterexample for it?
5
votes
1answer
549 views

Regular monomorphisms of schemes

In the category of schemes, the equalizer of two morphisms $f,g : X \to Y$ is always a locally closed immersion into $X$ (since this is just $X \times_{Y \times Y} Y$ and $\Delta : Y \to Y \times Y$ ...
47
votes
20answers
9k views

Algebraic geometry examples

What are some surprising or memorable examples in algebraic geometry, suitable for a course I'll be teaching on chapters 1-2 of Hartshorne (varieties, introductory schemes)? I'd prefer examples that ...
39
votes
15answers
12k views

The importance of EGA and SGA for “students of today”

That fact that EGA and SGA have played mayor roles is uncontroversial. But they contain many volumes/chapters and going through them would take a lot of time, especially if you do not speak French. ...
52
votes
6answers
4k views

Is there an analogue of curvature in algebraic geometry?

I am not an expert, but there seems to be an enormous technical difference between algebraic geometry and differential/metric geometry stemming from the fact that there is apparently no such thing as ...
20
votes
17answers
10k views

Learning about Lie groups

Can someone suggest a good book for teaching myself about Lie groups? I study algebraic geometry and commutative algebra, and I like lots of examples. Thanks.
42
votes
8answers
4k views

Questions about analogy between Spec Z and 3-manifolds

I'm not sure if the questions make sense: Conc. primes as knots and Spec Z as 3-manifold - fits that to the Poincare conjecture? Topologists view 3-manifolds as Kirby-equivalence classes of framed ...
36
votes
5answers
6k views

Why tropical geometry?

Tropical geometry can be described as "algebraic geometry" over the semifield $\mathbb{T}$ of tropical numbers. As a set, $\mathbb{T}=\mathbb{R}\cup \{ -\infty\}$; this is endowed with addition being ...
40
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the relationship between motivic cohomology and the theory of motives?

I will begin by giving a rough sketch of my understanding of motives. In many expositions about motives (for example, www.jmilne.org/math/xnotes/MOT102.pdf), the category of motives is defined to be ...
18
votes
5answers
5k views

Textbook for Etale Cohomology

What is the best textbook (or book) for studying Etale cohomology?
26
votes
2answers
2k views

How to unify various reconstruction theorems (Gabriel-Rosenberg, Tannaka,Balmers)

What I am talking about are reconstruction theorems for commutative scheme and group from category. Let me elaborate a bit. (I am not an expert, if I made mistake, feel free to correct me) ...
19
votes
6answers
4k views

Heuristic behind the Fourier-Mukai transform

What is the heuristic idea behind the Fourier-Mukai transform? What is the connection to the classical Fourier transform? Moreover, could someone recommend a concise introduction to the subject?
43
votes
3answers
2k views

Is “semisimple” a dense condition among Lie algebras?

The "Motivation" section is a cute story, and may be skipped; the "Definitions" section establishes notation and background results; my question is in "My Question", and in brief in the title. Some ...
53
votes
4answers
3k views

Rigidity of the category of schemes

Call a category $C$ rigid if every equivalence $C \to C$ is isomorphic to the identity. I don't know if this is standard terminology. Many of the usual algebraic categories are rigid, for example ...
18
votes
4answers
2k views

When are GIT quotients projective?

Some background on GIT Suppose G is a reductive group acting on a scheme X. We often want to understand the quotient X/G. For example, X might be some parameter space (like the space of possible ...
16
votes
5answers
2k views

Why are finiteness conditions important (and how to recognize them)?

I think everybody here has met lots of finiteness conditions, like those requiring a vector space to be finite dimensional, an abelian group to be finitely generated, a ring to be Noetherian, a ...
7
votes
1answer
596 views

geometric interpretation and differences of Gorenstein rings, Complete intersections and regular rings

Let $R$ be a local Noetherian ring. What is the geometric interpretation of: 1- Gorenstein rings 2- Complete intersections 3- Regular rings? and how can I realize differences by geometric ...
21
votes
5answers
2k views

Verlinde's formula

"Verlinde's formula" predicts the dimension of the space of conformal blocks of a chiral CFT. Depending on... • which chiral CFT one considers (does one restrict to WZW models, or not?) ...
12
votes
4answers
3k views

A finitely generated $\mathbb{Z}$-algebra that is a field has to be finite

I was trying to understand completely the post of Terrence Tao on Ax-Grothendieck theorem. http://terrytao.wordpress.com/2009/03/07/infinite-fields-finite-fields-and-the-ax-grothendieck-theorem/ ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

A nice explanation of what is a smooth (l-adic) sheaf?

I would like to understand this concept. It seems to be important (for the theory of perverse sheaves), yet I don't know any nice exposition of the properties of smooth sheaves.
30
votes
2answers
1k views

Is every Noetherian Commutative Ring a quotient of a Noetherian Domain?

This was an interesting question posed to me by a friend who is very interested in commutative algebra. It also has some nice geometric motivation. The question is in two parts. The first, as stated ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the theory of local rings and local ring homomorphisms?

It is well-known that the category of local rings and ring homomorphisms admits an axiomatisation in coherent logic. Explicitly, it is the coherent theory over the signature $0, 1, -, +, \times$ with ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

When are (finite) simplicial complexes (smooth) manifolds?

Hi, is there an algorithm that determines if a given simplicial complex is a.) a manifold b.) a smooth manifold c.) homotopy equivalent to a manifold d.) a real algebraic variety ?
10
votes
4answers
2k views

Isomorphism between varieties of char 0

Hi, the following statement appeared implicitly in a text I read and maybe you could just give me a hint how to see this resp. give a reference: If you have two k-varieties $X$ and $Y$ (sufficiently ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Existence of fine moduli space for curves and elliptic curves

For the moduli problem of a curve of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points, how large an $n$ is needed to ensure the existence of a fine moduli space? For this question, terminology is that of Mumford's ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

What are the monomorphisms in the category of schemes?

Someone recently asked what the epimorphisms in the category of schemes are; the other day I had been wondering about the similar question: what are the monomorphisms in the category of schemes? I am ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Fields of definition of a variety

Let K and L be two subfields of some field. If a variety is defined over both K and L, does it follow that the variety can be defined over their intersection?
12
votes
1answer
628 views

Explicit Bijection between Central Simple Algebras and twists of $\mathbb P^n$

The automorphism group of the algebra of $n$-dimensional matrices over a field $K$ is $PGL_n(K)$. The automorphism group of $n-1$-dimensional projective space over $K$ is also $PGL_n(K)$. Therefore, ...
12
votes
2answers
564 views

Integral points on varieties

I recently came across an interesting phenomenon which confused me slightly, concerning integral points on varieties. For example, consider $X = \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}}^{n+1} \setminus \{0\}$, affine ...
4
votes
2answers
686 views

Connections between Standard, Hodge and Tate conjectures on algebraic cycles?

What implications would a solution of the Standard Conjectures have on the Hodge and Tate Conjectures and reverse?
13
votes
2answers
1k views

D-modules and Algebraic Solutions of PDEs

I am not certain if this is a complete question and I fear it might be shot down. Anyway, I try to pose it. My question is in connection to using D-modules to study PDEs (and systems of PDEs). When ...
7
votes
3answers
745 views

Adelic description of moduli of $G$-bundles on a curve

Let $X$ be a smooth, projective, geometrically connected curve over a field $k$ and $G$ an an affine algebraic group group over $k$ (we can put more hypotheses on $G$ if necessary). If $K$ denotes the ...
5
votes
1answer
175 views

Intuition for thinking about $R$-module of Kähler differentials, universal receptacles, derivations?

Suppose $k$ is a field of characteristic zero, and $R$ is a $k$-algebra. The $R$-module of Kähler differentials $\Omega_{R/k}$ of $R$ over $k$ with generators $\{dr\}_{r \in R}$ is the module subject ...
16
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the status of the Friedlander-Milnor conjecture today?

For the purposes of this question, the Friedlander-Milnor (FM) conjecture asserts an equality of the group homology for algebraic groups, and their discretizations in the following sense: Conjecture ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Which Riemann surfaces arise from the Riemann existence theorem?

The following was already known to Riemann. Suppose that one is given a connected Riemann surface $X$, a finite set $\Delta \subset X$ and a homomorphism $\phi: \pi_1(X \backslash \Delta) \to S_d$ ...
4
votes
2answers
514 views

Vector Bundles on normal surfaces

Let $X$ be a projective normal surface over $\mathbb{C}$. In this related question it is stated as soon as $X$ is smooth any vector bundle defined on the compliment of a codimension 2 subset extends ...
1
vote
4answers
1k views

A proof for a statement about polynomial automorphism

I already got a proof for the fact that if a polynomial map is surjective then it is also injective. However, I used the invariant dimension of a ring and I want a simpler proof. Bravo for any try. ...
10
votes
0answers
332 views

What is the state of art in Groebner bases

How big polynomial systems can we deal with? How do you know when you don't even have to try? Motivation: Recently I tried to solve a problem posed in another MO question and ultimately I got stuck ...
9
votes
1answer
459 views

Sheaves on Contractible Analytic Spaces

Let $(X,\mathcal{O}_X)$ be a contractible complex analytic space. Suppose that $\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules. Can we invoke the fact that $X$ is contractible to ...