Algebraic varieties, stacks, sheaves, schemes, moduli spaces, complex geometry, quantum cohomology.

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167
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7answers
82k views

Philosophy behind Mochizuki's work on the ABC conjecture

Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...
67
votes
6answers
7k views

what mistakes did the Italian algebraic geometers actually make?

It's "well-known" that the 19th century Italian school of algebraic geometry made great progress but also started to flounder due to lack of rigour, possibly in part due to the fact that foundations ...
32
votes
6answers
3k views

Geometric / physical / probabilistic interpretations of Riemann zeta(n>1)?

What are some physical, geometric, or probabilistic interpretations of the values of the Riemann zeta function at the positive integers greater than one? I've found some examples: 1) In MO-Q111339 ...
76
votes
32answers
46k views

Best Algebraic Geometry text book? (other than Hartshorne)

I think (almost) everyone agrees that Hartshorne's Algebraic Geometry is still the best. Then what might be the 2nd best? It can be a book, preprint, online lecture note, webpage, etc. One suggestion ...
31
votes
5answers
4k views

Why tropical geometry?

Tropical geometry can be described as "algebraic geometry" over the semifield $\mathbb{T}$ of tropical numbers. As a set, $\mathbb{T}=\mathbb{R}\cup \{ -\infty\}$; this is endowed with addition being ...
26
votes
2answers
2k views

How to unify various reconstruction theorems (Gabriel-Rosenberg, Tannaka,Balmers)

What I am talking about are reconstruction theorems for commutative scheme and group from category. Let me elaborate a bit. (I am not an expert, if I made mistake, feel free to correct me) ...
39
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the relationship between motivic cohomology and the theory of motives?

I will begin by giving a rough sketch of my understanding of motives. In many expositions about motives (for example, www.jmilne.org/math/xnotes/MOT102.pdf), the category of motives is defined to be ...
19
votes
6answers
3k views

Heuristic behind the Fourier-Mukai transform

What is the heuristic idea behind the Fourier-Mukai transform? What is the connection to the classical Fourier transform? Moreover, could someone recommend a concise introduction to the subject?
26
votes
8answers
2k views

When are there enough projective sheaves on a space X?

This question is being asked on behalf of a colleague of mine. Let X be a topological space. It is well known that the abelian category of sheaves on X has enough injectives: that is, every sheaf ...
40
votes
3answers
2k views

Is “semisimple” a dense condition among Lie algebras?

The "Motivation" section is a cute story, and may be skipped; the "Definitions" section establishes notation and background results; my question is in "My Question", and in brief in the title. Some ...
16
votes
5answers
1k views

Why are finiteness conditions important (and how to recognize them)?

I think everybody here has met lots of finiteness conditions, like those requiring a vector space to be finite dimensional, an abelian group to be finitely generated, a ring to be Noetherian, a ...
26
votes
2answers
2k views

What interesting/nontrivial results in Algebraic geometry require the existence of universes?

Brian Conrad indicated a while ago that many of the results proven in AG using universes can be proven without them by being very careful (link). I'm wondering if there are any results in AG that ...
21
votes
5answers
1k views

Verlinde's formula

"Verlinde's formula" predicts the dimension of the space of conformal blocks of a chiral CFT. Depending on... • which chiral CFT one considers (does one restrict to WZW models, or not?) ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

One point in the post of Terence Tao on Ax-Grothendieck theorem

I was trying to understand completely the post of Terrence Tao on Ax-Grothendieck theorem. http://terrytao.wordpress.com/2009/03/07/infinite-fields-finite-fields-and-the-ax-grothendieck-theorem/ ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

A nice explanation of what is a smooth (l-adic) sheaf?

I would like to understand this concept. It seems to be important (for the theory of perverse sheaves), yet I don't know any nice exposition of the properties of smooth sheaves.
29
votes
2answers
1k views

Is every Noetherian Commutative Ring a quotient of a Noetherian Domain?

This was an interesting question posed to me by a friend who is very interested in commutative algebra. It also has some nice geometric motivation. The question is in two parts. The first, as stated ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

When are (finite) simplicial complexes (smooth) manifolds?

Hi, is there an algorithm that determines if a given simplicial complex is a.) a manifold b.) a smooth manifold c.) homotopy equivalent to a manifold d.) a real algebraic variety ?
11
votes
1answer
1k views

What are the monomorphisms in the category of schemes?

Someone recently asked what the epimorphisms in the category of schemes are; the other day I had been wondering about the similar question: what are the monomorphisms in the category of schemes? I am ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Fields of definition of a variety

Let K and L be two subfields of some field. If a variety is defined over both K and L, does it follow that the variety can be defined over their intersection?
12
votes
2answers
538 views

Integral points on varieties

I recently came across an interesting phenomenon which confused me slightly, concerning integral points on varieties. For example, consider $X = \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Z}}^{n+1} \setminus \{0\}$, affine ...
12
votes
2answers
877 views

D-modules and Algebraic Solutions of PDEs

I am not certain if this is a complete question and I fear it might be shot down. Anyway, I try to pose it. My question is in connection to using D-modules to study PDEs (and systems of PDEs). When ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Which Riemann surfaces arise from the Riemann existence theorem?

The following was already known to Riemann. Suppose that one is given a connected Riemann surface $X$, a finite set $\Delta \subset X$ and a homomorphism $\phi: \pi_1(X \backslash \Delta) \to S_d$ ...
4
votes
2answers
531 views

Connections between Standard, Hodge and Tate conjectures on algebraic cycles?

What implications would a solution of the Standard Conjectures have on the Hodge and Tate Conjectures and reverse?
9
votes
1answer
364 views

Sheaves on Contractible Analytic Spaces

Let $(X,\mathcal{O}_X)$ be a contractible complex analytic space. Suppose that $\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules. Can we invoke the fact that $X$ is contractible to ...
3
votes
2answers
341 views

Hopf algebra of Chevalley group from the root system

Has anyone worked out a uniform way of constructing the Hopf algebra of a Chevalley group out of the root system (or, more precisely out of the root datum for reductive groups). By "uniform", I mean ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Measure on real Grassmannians

OK, so I'm reading about this nice measure you can define on a (real) Grassmannian on Wikipedia. Basically, and to save you the trip through the link, consider the Haar measure $\theta$ on $O(n)$, fix ...
7
votes
2answers
398 views

Equivariant Stratifications of a Variety

Let $X$ be a complex variety acted upon algebraically by a complex torus $T$. Suppose that $\{X_{\beta}\}_{\beta\in S}$ is a finite $T$-equivariant stratification of $X$, so that the $X_{\beta}$ are ...
4
votes
1answer
482 views

Regular monomorphisms of schemes

In the category of schemes, the equalizer of two morphisms $f,g : X \to Y$ is always a locally closed immersion into $X$ (since this is just $X \times_{Y \times Y} Y$ and $\Delta : Y \to Y \times Y$ ...
2
votes
2answers
243 views

Basic questions on the Hilbert scheme/ Douady space

Let $X$ be a complex projective scheme (resp. complex analytic space). The Hilbert scheme (resp. Douady space) parameterizes closed subschemes (resp. complex analytic subspaces) of $X$. More ...
8
votes
2answers
479 views

An integrality question about expressing an integer as a product of numbers below $n$

Let $n\ge 2$ be a natural number. Suppose that $N$ is a natural number, composed only of primes below $n$, and that can be expressed as $$ N= \prod_{j=1}^{n} j^{x_j} $$ where $x_1$, $\ldots$, ...
6
votes
2answers
301 views

Calculate reduction of Jacobian of hyperelliptic curve

Suppose I have a hyperelliptic curve of genus $2$ over $\mathbb Q$. I want to get information about its Jacobian reduction at prime $p$ (especially, in case $p=2$). Also I'm interesting in the group ...
5
votes
1answer
192 views

Decomposition theorem for semi-abelian varieties

Fact : Let $B$ an abelian subvariety of an abelian variety over a field $K$. We know that there exist an abelian subvariety $C$ of $A$ such that the restriction of addition gives an isogeny ...
2
votes
0answers
121 views

Rewrite sum of radicals equation as polynomial equation

My question is about a method described in Dr.Math forum for simplifying equations involving sums of radical functions. (The following is a transcription of the example given by Dr. Vogler): --- ...
2
votes
1answer
281 views

Automorphism groups of indefinite non-unimodular integer lattices

Does anyone know of any papers in which structural aspects of the orthogonal group of some indefinite non-unimodular integral lattice are calculated? The exact lattice isn't so important and they ...
1
vote
0answers
133 views

Descending chain condition for radical ideals

For which integral domains $R$ (not filed) the ring $R[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ satisfies descending chain condition for radical ideals? I am not expert in Ring Theory and I need an answer to construct some ...
120
votes
31answers
15k views

What should be learned in a first serious schemes course?

I've just finished teaching a year-long "foundations of algebraic geometry" class. It was my third time teaching it, and my notes are gradually converging. I've enjoyed it for a number of reasons ...
46
votes
20answers
8k views

Algebraic geometry examples

What are some surprising or memorable examples in algebraic geometry, suitable for a course I'll be teaching on chapters 1-2 of Hartshorne (varieties, introductory schemes)? I'd prefer examples that ...
94
votes
1answer
9k views

What are the shapes of rational functions?

I would like to understand and compute the shapes of rational functions, that is, holomorphic maps of the Riemann sphere to itself, or equivalently, ratios of two polynomials, up to Moebius ...
33
votes
15answers
10k views

The importance of EGA and SGA for “students of today”

That fact that EGA and SGA have played mayor roles is uncontroversial. But they contain many volumes/chapters and going through them would take a lot of time, especially if you do not speak French. ...
34
votes
8answers
5k views

Sheaf cohomology and injective resolutions

In defining sheaf cohomology (say in Hartshorne), a common approach seems to be defining the cohomology functors as derived functors. Is there any conceptual reason for injective resolution to come ...
51
votes
6answers
4k views

Is there an analogue of curvature in algebraic geometry?

I am not an expert, but there seems to be an enormous technical difference between algebraic geometry and differential/metric geometry stemming from the fact that there is apparently no such thing as ...
40
votes
8answers
4k views

Questions about analogy between Spec Z and 3-manifolds

I'm not sure if the questions make sense: Conc. primes as knots and Spec Z as 3-manifold - fits that to the Poincare conjecture? Topologists view 3-manifolds as Kirby-equivalence classes of framed ...
16
votes
17answers
8k views

Learning about Lie groups

Can someone suggest a good book for teaching myself about Lie groups? I study algebraic geometry and commutative algebra, and I like lots of examples. Thanks.
30
votes
9answers
4k views

What are dessins d'enfants?

There was an observation that any algebraic curve over Q can be rationally mapped to P^1 without three points and this led ...
23
votes
6answers
2k views

“Points” in algebraic geometry: Why shift from m-Spec to Spec?

Why were algebraic geometers in the 19th Century thinking of m-Spec as the set of points of an affine variety associated to the ring whereas, sometime in the middle of the 20 Century, people started ...
26
votes
1answer
2k views

Flatness in Algebraic Geometry vs. Fibration in Topology

I am currently trying to get my head around flatness in algebraic geometry. In particular, I'm trying to relate the notion of flatness in algebraic geometry to the notion of fibration in algebraic ...
18
votes
6answers
4k views

Why are local systems and representations of the fundamental group equivalent

My question: Let X be a sufficiently 'nice' topological space. Then there is an equivalence between representations of the fundamental group of X and local systems on X, i.e. sheaves on X locally ...
38
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the insight of Quillen's proof that all projective modules over a polynomial ring are free?

One of the more misleadingly difficult theorems in mathematics is that all finitely generated projective modules over a polynomial ring are free. It involves some of the most basic notions in ...
29
votes
5answers
3k views

Which nonlinear PDEs are of interest to algebraic geometers and why?

Motivation I have recently started thinking about the interrelations among algebraic geometry and nonlinear PDEs. It is well known that the methods and ideas of algebraic geometry have lead to a ...
23
votes
7answers
3k views

Ubiquity of the push-pull formula

The push-pull formula appears in several different incarnations. There are, at least, the following: 1) If $f \colon X \to Y$ is a continous map, then for sheaves $\mathcal{F}$ on $X$ and ...