Questions on the subject additive combinatorics, also known as arithmetic combinatorics, such as questions on: additive bases, sum sets, inverse sum set theorems, sets with small doubling, Sidon sets, Szemerédi's theorem and its ramifications, Gowers uniformity norms, etc. Often combined with the ...

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2
votes
1answer
150 views

Find a subset such that its sum is divisible by $n$

It is said that the following proposition is true. $\forall S \subset \mathbb{Z}, |S| = 2n-1.\ \exists A \subset S, |A| = n$ which satisfies $$ n \ | \ \sum_{a \in A}a. $$ Could someone gives a ...
7
votes
0answers
133 views

Sets of natural numbers which are almost closed under addition

I am interested in a classification of sets $A \subseteq \mathbb{N}$ such that for all $k \in A$, $d( A+k \cap \mathbb{N} \setminus A) = 0$ where $d$ is the asymptotic density and $A+k = \{n \in ...
0
votes
0answers
72 views

Embedding a cancellative monoid into another in such a way that $|X-x|=|X|$, where $X$ is a fixed finite set and $x\in X$

Preliminaries. Let $\mathbb A = (A, +)$ be a possibly non-commutative semigroup. For $X, Y \subseteq A$ we set $$ X - Y := \{a \in A: a + y \in X\text{ for some }y \in Y\}, $$ which is just the usual ...
4
votes
0answers
121 views

Decay to stationarity in a random walk on the hypercube

Let $\mu$ be a probability distribution on $\mathbb F_2^n$. Consider the random walk $X_0,X_1,\ldots$ defined by $$\begin{aligned} X_0 &= 0\\X_{i+1}&=X_i + Z,\end{aligned}$$ where $Z\sim \mu$ ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Does positive relative density imply asymptotic additive basis behaviour?

First definitions: let $A, B \ \subset \mathbb{Z_{>0}}$ and $1\in A, 1\in B$. We define the relative density of $A$ with respect to $B$ to be $$rel(A, B) = \inf_n \frac{|A \cap [1,n]|}{| B \cap ...
9
votes
1answer
282 views

Largeness and arithmetic progression properties of generic reals

Consider the following properties for a subset $A$ of $\mathbb{N}$: (1) $A$ is large: $\sum_{n \in A}$$ 1\over n$$=\infty,$ (2) $A^\infty=\limsup \frac{|A \cap \{ 1, \dots, n\}|}{n} >0$, (3) ...
5
votes
1answer
233 views

Zero-sum sets in union-closed families

The Davenport constant $D(G)$ of a finite abelian group $G$ is the minimum integer $n$ such that whenever $a_1, \ldots, a_n \in G$ (not necessarily distinct), there is a non-empty $I \subseteq [n]$ ...
3
votes
1answer
126 views

3-dimensional vectors satisfying certain equalities

Question: Are there 5 distinct vectors $u,v,w,x,y \in \mathbb{R}^3$, all on the unit sphere (i.e. $||u||=||v||=||w||=||x||=||y||=1$), such that: $||u+v+x||=||u+v+y||=||u+w+x||=||u+w+y||=1$ ? Also, ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

A seemingly simple combinatorial object that must have an easy generating function

One more question related to my earlier "Special" meanders. I am trying to isolate simplest problems related to it. Here is one. For a composition (i. e. a tuple of natural numbers) ...
7
votes
1answer
350 views

Does $|A+A|$ concentrate near its mean?

Fix $N$ to be a large prime. Let $A \subset \mathbb{Z}/N\mathbb{Z}$ be a random subset defined by $\mathbb{P}(a \in A) = p$, where $p = N^{-2/3 + \epsilon}$ for some fixed $\epsilon > 0$. My ...
4
votes
0answers
224 views

The original proof of Szemerédi's Theorem

Nowadays there are plenty of different proofs of the celebrated Szemerédi's Theorem but for historical reasons I would like to read and understand the original proof. The proof is very tricky and, for ...
6
votes
1answer
102 views

Are the extremal points of a certain set of functions $\mathcal P(\mathbf N) \to \bf R$ weakly additive?

Let an upper density (on $\mathbf N$) be a (set) function $f: \mathcal P(\mathbf N) \to \mathbf R$ such that, for all $X, Y \subseteq \bf N$ and $h,k \in \mathbf N^+$, the following hold: (F1) ...
3
votes
1answer
151 views

Freiman-isomorphic sets

Haw can we prove that an arbitrary set $A$ of $n$ positive integers is 2-Freiman isomorphic to a subset of {$ 1,2,...,4^{n}$} and $4^{n}$ cannot be improved to $2^{n}$?
4
votes
1answer
154 views

Reference to a variant of Abel's summation formula

Edit. A stronger version of the formula is true (details follow). Let $(a_n)_{n \ge 1}$ be a sequence of complex numbers, $(\lambda_n)_{n \ge 1}$ a nondecreasing sequence of positive reals such that ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

l-wise t-intersecting families of shifts of finite sets of integers

Let $A$ be a finite set of non-negative integers and write $I_k$ for the set ${0,1,\ldots,k-1}$. Form all possible l-wise intersections $(A+k_1)\cap \ldots \cap (A+k_l)$, where each $k_i$ runs through ...
3
votes
2answers
110 views

Partition regular systems: do they have solution in (very dense) set of integers?

A partition regular system is a linear system of equations of the form $A\cdot x=0$, which satisfies a Ramsey-type result (namely, that for each $r>0$ whenever we colour the integers in $r$ ...
2
votes
1answer
218 views

Some divisibility constraints in Frobenius coin problem

Let's say that the linear form $ax+by$ represents $n$ if $ax+by=n$ for some positive integer $x$ and $y$. Call a pair $(a,b)\in\Bbb N\times\Bbb N$ with $\mathsf{gcd}(a,b)=1$ excellent if linear form ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Intersections of translates of finite sets of integers

I am searching for a result in the literature that I am sure must be known, but I just fail to find it. Let us starts with a simple example: Let $A, B\subset \mathbb{Z}$ be a finite sets of integers ...
3
votes
1answer
258 views

Problem related to Frobenius coin problem

Let's say that the linear form $ax+by$ represents $n$ if $ax+by=n$ for some positive integer $x$ and $y$. Call a pair $(a,b)\in\Bbb N\times\Bbb N$ with $\mathsf{gcd}(a,b)=1$ good if, for any ...
1
vote
0answers
77 views

Consecutive integers divisible by consecutive small numbers

Given $n$, what is the largest set of consecutive integers in $[n,2n]$ can we have so that each integer is divisible by a distinct element from $[\log n,2\log n]$ (no partiular order)? So apriori I am ...
5
votes
0answers
70 views

Some questions about the Lévy monoid of certain densities

Let $\bf H$ be a set, $f: \mathcal P({\bf H}) \rightharpoonup \bf R$ a partial function, and $\mathcal{D}$ the domain of $f$. Next, denote by $\mathcal M(f)$ the set of all (total) functions $\theta: ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

$\mathsf{GCD}$s of random linear form

Given $a,b\in\Bbb N_{<M}$ where $M\in\Bbb N_{>\exp(18)}$ is arbitrary with $(a,b)=1$, the probability that $\mathsf{gcd}(ax_1+by_1,ax_2+by_2)=1$ where $x_1,x_2,y_1,y_2\in\Bbb N_{>\ln M}$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
142 views

Exact statistics in the Frobenius coin problem

The Frobenius coin problem guarantees that if $(a,b)=1$, then $$ax+by$$ does not represent exactly $\frac{(a-1)(b-1)}2$ numbers all below $g(a,b)=ab-a-b$ if $x,y\geq0$ holds. Assume $m\in[0,ab-a-b]$ ...
8
votes
0answers
207 views

An abstract zero-sum problem

I would like to know whether the problem described below has appeared in the literature and/or whether similar questions have been studied. I would be very happy to find some references or, if none ...
12
votes
1answer
792 views

Where did the term “additive energy” originate?

A fundamental object in modern additive combinatorics and harmonic analysis is additive energy. Given a subset $A$ of (say) an abelian group $G$ the additive energy of $A$ is defined to be the ...
9
votes
0answers
288 views

A characterization of quadratics similar to an inverse sieve problem

Suppose $\mathscr{A} \subset \mathbb{N}$ enjoys for all large enough cutoffs $X$ the following properties: $|\mathscr{A} \cap [1,X]| > \sqrt{X}/10$; and the discriminant $\prod_{\alpha \neq ...
8
votes
0answers
193 views

Partition regularity in the squares

A linear equation $c_1x_1 + \cdots + c_sx_s = 0$ is partition regular if for every partition of the natural numbers into colour classes $A_1, \ldots, A_r$, there is a solution to the equation in which ...
5
votes
0answers
184 views

Is $AA+A$ always at least as large as $A/A$?

Let $A$ be a finite set of real numbers. Is it always the case that $|AA+A| \geq |A/A|$? In the line above, $AA+A:=\{ab+c:a,b,c \in A \}$, while $A/A:=\{a/b:a,b \in A, b\neq 0 \}$ is the ratio set. ...
6
votes
1answer
264 views

Subsets of [1..N] with no three-term arithmetic progressions and no large gaps

Let S be a subset of [1..N] containing no three-term arithmetic progression, and let h(S) be the size of the largest gap between two consecutive elements of S. By Roth's theorem, h(S) has to grow ...
6
votes
2answers
261 views

Additive energy of Piatetski-Shapiro sequences

Let $c>1$, and let $A$ denote the set $$ \Big\{ \lfloor n^c \rfloor, \quad 1 \leq n \leq N \Big\}. $$ Thus $A$ consists of the first $N$ elements of a so-called Piatetski-Shapiro sequence. The ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

limit and combinatorics

Given $x \in (0,\frac{1}{2})$ and $y \in (0,\frac{1}{2}]$, what is the value of the following limit: $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\sum_{k=0}^{n}{n \choose k}|x^{n-k}(1-x)^{k}-y^{n-k}(1-y)^{k}|?$ When ...
2
votes
0answers
113 views

Additive combinatorics and a Diophantine equation

Let $(n_k)_{1 \leq k \leq N}$ be a sequence of distinct positive integers. For $v \in \mathbb{Z}$ set $$ A_N(v) = \# \Big\{ (k,\ell) \in \{1, \dots, N\}^2, ~k \neq \ell:\quad n_k - n_\ell = v \Big\}. ...
13
votes
1answer
524 views

Erdös-Turán via Hardy-Littlewood circle method?

For any set $B\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ one can associate the formal series $$f_B(z) = \sum_{b\in B}z^b$$ and obtain $$f_B(z)^k = \sum_{n\geqslant 0} r_{B,k}(n)z^n,$$ where $r_{B,k}(n) = ...
3
votes
2answers
327 views

Is the sumset or the sumset of the square set always large?

Let A be a finite subset of $\mathbb{N}$, $\mathbb{R}$, or a sufficiently small subset of $\mathbb{F}_{p}$. Do we have a lower bound of the form $|A|^{1+\delta}$ on the following quantity: $$\max ...
6
votes
1answer
313 views

Additivity of upper densities with respect to arithmetic progressions of integers

Let $\mathsf{d}^\star$ be the asymptotic upper density, defined on the power set of positive integers $\mathbf{N}^+$, so that $$ \mathsf{d}^\star\colon \mathcal{P}(\mathbf{N}^+) \to\mathbf{R}\colon ...
3
votes
0answers
208 views

Area defined with $\pm$ closedness

Denote $B_n\subset\Bbb R^n$ to be unit ball at origin. Denote $S\subset B_n$ to region of type $\mathsf I$ if it satisfies $$s\in S\iff\forall t\in S, s+t\in S\mbox{ or }s-t\in S$$ I am convinced ...
18
votes
0answers
494 views

Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief:   When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that $$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$ gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...
6
votes
1answer
287 views

What pairs of sets have additive energy?

In an abelian group, the additive energy between two sets is $$E(A,B)=|\{(a_1,a_2,b_1,b_2) \in A\times A\times B\times B:a_1+b_1=a_2+b_2\}|$$ which is ranges from $|A||B|$ to $(|A||B|)^{3/2}$. What I ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Elaboration of a certain section of a paper by Thanigasalam

In section 11 of this paper by Thanigasalam, it says "... we get $G(10)\le 105$, and this implies that $H(10) \le 107$". However, it is very unclear how this follows. Why is it the case that $G(10)\le ...
0
votes
0answers
112 views

Determing signs of Taylor coefficients in entire functions

This is a continuation of Determining when combinatorial sums are zero Suppose $f(x)$ is an entire function approximated by polynomials with only negative real zeros. Suppose further that ...
6
votes
2answers
285 views

Determining when combinatorial sums are zero

To keep things simple with a specific example, we ask: Prove that $\displaystyle\ a_n:=\frac{1}{n!}\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k} \frac{1}{k!} (-1)^{n-k}$ is zero if and only if $n=1$. (Or find a ...
2
votes
1answer
301 views

On the upper Banach density of the set of positive integers whose base-$b$ representation misses at least one prescribed digit

Let $b$ be a fixed integer $\ge 2$ and $A$ a proper subset of $\{0, \ldots, b-1\}$. Then define $X$ to be the set of all positive integers whose base-$b$ representation consists only of digits from ...
9
votes
1answer
437 views

Who was/were the first to note that if $\sum_{x \in X} \frac{1}{x} < \infty$ then the natural density of $X$ is zero?

It is a result of folklore that the natural density of a set $X$ of positive integers such that $\sum_{x \in X} \frac{1}{x} < \infty$ is zero. This is reproved, e.g., in T. Šalát's paper: ...
7
votes
0answers
161 views

Distribution of trivial subset sums

Suppose I have a set $S$ of $n$ integers picked independently, uniformly at random from $[-L, L].$ Let $z(S)$ be the number of subsets of $S$ which sum to zero. The question is: what is the ...
3
votes
0answers
131 views

Goldbach's problem in algebraic number fields [duplicate]

Are there any results on the representation of numbers in algebraic number fields as the sum of primes in the ring of integers in that field? There are some results for Waring's problem in other ...
3
votes
1answer
185 views

When are the powers of 2 sum-free mod n?

I've encountered the following question in my research: Let $A$ be a subset of $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$. Let me call $A$ "sum-free" if there is no solution to $x+y=z$ for $x,y,z \in A$ with distinct ...
3
votes
1answer
187 views

higher dimensional analogue of EGZ theorem

The EGZ theorem states that any multiset of $2n-1$ integers has a subset of size $n$ the sum of whose elements is a multiple of $n$. Kemnitz-Reiher theorem is a 2-dimensional analogue of EGZ. Here is ...
5
votes
1answer
177 views

Unicity of additive, $(-1)$-homogeneous, and shift invariant probability measures on $\mathbf N^+$

Let $\mathcal D$ be the set of all (finitely) additive probability measures $\mu^\ast: \mathcal P(\mathbf N^+) \to [0,\infty[$ such that $\mu^\ast(k \cdot X + h) = \frac{1}{k} \mu^\ast(X)$ for all $X ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Does there exist $k\ge2$ s.t. $X \subseteq \mathbf N^+$ has positive upper Banach density if the counting function of $X$ is $\gg n/\log^{[k]}(n)$?

Does there exist an integer $k \ge 1$ such that ${\sf bd}^\ast(X) > 0$ whenever $X \subseteq \mathbf N^+$ and $\pi_X(n) \gg \frac{n}{\log^{[k]}(n)}$ as $n \to \infty$? Here, ${\sf bd}^\ast$ is the ...
4
votes
1answer
266 views

Ref. request: Additive probability measure on $\mathcal P({\bf N})$ supplies subset of $\mathbf R$ without Baire property

ZFC proves, among the other things, the existence of a (finitely) additive probability measure $\theta: \mathcal P(\mathbf N) \to \mathbf R$ on the power set of $\mathbf N$ such that $\theta(X) = 0$ ...