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3
votes
5answers
542 views

“Convex Optimization” over varying-dimension vector space?

For all instances of Convex Optimization I know of, the dimension of the vector space is defined beforehand. Is there an area of mathematics that deals with "convex optimization" of varying-dimension ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Sylow's theorem 3rd Proof Page 96 I.N.Herstein

I was just going through the 3rd Proof of Sylow's theorem given in the "Topics In Algebra" Book by I.N. Herstein. It looked very interesting and i really liked its Philosophy. My question what is its ...
4
votes
5answers
2k views

Indeterminate “x” in Abstract Algebra/Ring Theory [closed]

How do you interpret the indeterminate "x" in ring theory from the set theory viewpoint? How do you write down R[x] as a set? Is it appropriate/correct to just say that $R[x] = \{ f: R \to R | ...
1
vote
2answers
849 views

Extension problem

As I understand, if $0\rightarrow A\rightarrow X\rightarrow B\rightarrow 0$ is a short exact sequence of abelian groups, $\mbox{Ext }_{\mathbb{Z}}^{1}(B,A)$ gives all the isomorphism classes of what ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

Linearly independent subsets of a free module

Is it true that the cardinality of every maximal linearly independent subset of a finitely generated free module $A^{n}$ is equal to $n$ (not just at most $n$, but in fact $n$)? Here $A$ is a nonzero ...
21
votes
6answers
2k views

How fast are a ruler and compass?

This may be more of a recreational mathematics question than a research question, but I have wondered about it for a while. I hope it is not inappropriate for MO. Consider the standard assumptions ...
1
vote
1answer
943 views

Cardinality of symmetric group [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Cardinality of the permutations of an infinite set Why does the symmetric group on an infinite set X have the cardinality of the power set ${\cal P}(X)$?
25
votes
3answers
2k views

Feit-Thompson Theorem: The Odd Order Paper

For reference, the Feit-Thompson Theorem states that every finite group of odd order is necessarily solvable. Equivalently, the theorem states that there exist no non-abelian finite simple groups of ...
1
vote
2answers
426 views

Understanding the modules of semiprimitive rings

As far as I understand, a semiprimitive ring can be fully 'explored' by its simple modules, in the sense that a semiprimitive ring is the subdirect product of its simple modules (for brevity, I'll use ...
2
votes
2answers
263 views

Explicit representations of finite fields

An old question that occurred to me again recently: are there any explicit formula known for sequences of irreducible polynomials $g_{p^n}(X)$ in $Z/pZ[X]$ such that for the finite field with $p^n$ ...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

Is there a way to simplify block Cholesky decomposition If you already have decomposed the sub matrices along the leading diagonal?

Lets say we have a block matrix $ M =\left( \begin{array}{ccc} A & B\\\\ B^{*} & C \end{array} \right)$ where M is positive definite. (A, and C are also pos def) There is a formula for ...
7
votes
10answers
5k views

Learning Algebra & Group Theory on my own [closed]

I'm learning Algebra & Group Theory, casually, on my own. Professionally, I'm a computer consultant, with a growing interest in the mathematical and theoretical aspects. I've been amazed with ...
7
votes
2answers
691 views

The word “torsion” and its connection to geometry and homology

In an $R$-module $M$, an element $m \in M$ is said to be torsion if $am = 0$ for some $a \in R$ with $a \neq 0$. Also, for a non-orientable (closed) surface such as the projective plane or the Klein ...
10
votes
5answers
5k views

Does category theory help understanding abstract algebra?

I'm studying category theory now as a "scientific initiation" (a program in Brazil where you study some subjects not commonly seen by a undergrad), but as I've never studied abstract algebra before, ...
0
votes
3answers
1k views

terminology about ring/algebra in abstract algebra and measure theory

Both in abstract algebra and measure theory is there term ring/algebra, but their definition are different and we can not deduce one from the other, the only requirement in definition they share is ...
14
votes
7answers
3k views

What are the reasons for considering rings without identity?

I think a major reason is because Lie algebras don't have an identity, but I'm not really sure.
9
votes
2answers
747 views

Free division rings?

Does it make sense to talk about, say, the free division ring on 2 generators? If so, does the free division ring on countably many generators embed into the free division ring on two generators?
1
vote
1answer
451 views

Is the multiplication beetween even numbers an associative algebra?

We were discussing about the possibility of having an algebra over a field which is associative but has not the unity. Does it exist? It has been proposed as a counterexample the set of even numbers. ...
4
votes
1answer
339 views

Mechanically instantiating abstract constructions

I am looking for work on the effective inverse of abstraction, aka specialization. There are two ways in which abstraction helps us: Get a better understanding of the structural rules at play in ...
12
votes
5answers
1k views

Are rings really more fundamental objects than semi-rings?

The discovery (or invention) of negatives, which happened several centuries ago by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, has of course be of fundamental importance to mathematics. From then on, it seems ...
1
vote
1answer
196 views

How to distinguish property of particular representation from property of algebraic structure?

It is common that You have some interesting object (set, group, algebra or something, whatever) which has certain properties, structure etc. You may try describe it in pure algebraic way. Sometimes ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

On order of subgroups in abelian groups

I wonder whether any of you guys has already read the homonymous note by R. Beals in the December 2009 issue of the Monthly. If so, would you be so kind as to let me know about the main ideas in ...
6
votes
8answers
4k views

Best way to teach concept of real numbers using a hands-on activity?

I know a middle school math teacher looking for some suggestions for hands-on activities to teach the concept of real numbers. I'm new to this site, so this may be a little off topic.
3
votes
1answer
271 views

Why are relations of degree 3 or less enough in a presentation of the polynomial current Lie algebra g[t]?

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a finite dimensional simple Lie algebra over $\mathbb{C}$. The polynomial current Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}[t] = \mathfrak{g} \otimes \mathbb{C} [t]$ has the bracket $$[xt^r, ...
2
votes
2answers
700 views

about state-field correspondence

In the defination of vertex algebra,we call the vertex operator state-field correspondence,does that mean that it is an injective map?? Are there some physical intepretations about state-field ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Using Weierstrass’s Factorization Theorem

I am trying to factorize $\sin(x)\over x$ which by Taylor series expansion and using the roots is $$a \cdot \left(1 - \frac{x}{\pi} \right) \left(1 + \frac{x}{\pi} \right) \left(1 - \frac{x}{2\pi} ...
2
votes
1answer
159 views

Introduction to modular property of affine alegebra and conformal vertex algebra

I wonder how modular property naturally arises in conformal theory. Is it obvious from physical viewpoint?
0
votes
1answer
196 views

About vertex algebra ,mode expansion

A vertex operator is a linear map associating every state to a operator-valued distributions(quantum field) on a algebra curve,which is also called operator-state correspondence. Chose a local complex ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Variants of Eisenstein irreducibility

In his article where he stated what we know as Eisenstein's irreducibility criterion (which actually was first proved by Schönemann, as was Scholz's reciprocity law and Hensel's Lemma), he ...
2
votes
1answer
888 views

Unique factorization in polynomial rings

Everybody knows that polynomial rings over fields have unique factorization, and that if $R$ has unique factorization, then so does $R[X]$. And everybody knows who proved these results first. Well, ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Galois group of a product of polynomials

How can I compute the Galois group of the polynomial $fg\in K[x]$ assuming that I know the Galois groups of $f\in K[x]$ and $g\in K[x]$? Let's suppose for simplicity that the field $K$ is perfect.
0
votes
2answers
233 views

Existence of an “anti-additive” (or “never linear”) map?

(I've edited this question) I'm searching for a continuously differentiable function $f:\mathbb R^2\to\mathbb R$ such that $f(x)+f(x+u+v)\neq f(x+u)+f(x+v)$ for all $x$ and all linearly independent ...
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Invariant Polynomials under a Group Action (hidden GIT)

Let's say I start with the polynomial ring in $n$ variables $R = \mathbb{Z}[x_1,...,x_n]$ (in the case at hand I had $\mathbb{C}$ in place of $\mathbb{Z}$). Now the symmetric group $\mathfrak{S}_n$ ...
33
votes
7answers
4k views

“Algebraic” topologies like the Zariski topology?

The fact that a commutative ring has a natural topological space associated with it is still a really interesting coincidence. The entire subject of Algebraic geometry is based on this simple fact. ...
3
votes
2answers
623 views

Injective modules and Pontrjagin duals

Forgive me for this naive question. We consider the following lemma and its proof in Lang's algebra, Third Ed., published 1999, Chap. 20, section 4, page 784. Every module is a submodule of an ...
4
votes
2answers
705 views

Is \mathbb{C}^{n \times n} algebraically closed?

Inspite of the fact that $C^{n \times n}$ is not a field, is it still possible to talk about it being 'algebraically closed' in the sense that $\forall f \in \mathbb{C}^{n \times n}[x]$ does $\exists ...
6
votes
2answers
487 views

Examples of Completions and Algebraic Closures

It is widely known that the algebaric closure of the $p$-adic completion $\mathbb{Q}_p$ of $\mathbb{Q}$ isn't complete anymore. It's completion is complete and known as $\mathbb{C}_p$. I have read ...
11
votes
3answers
913 views

Sign of infinite permutations?

Let $S_\infty$ the group of permutations of $\mathbb{N}$. It can be shown that there is no homomorphism $S_\infty \to \mathbf{Z}/2$ extending the sign on the finite symmetric groups. Is it possible to ...
17
votes
1answer
3k views

Infinite Tensor Products

Let $A$ be a commutative ring and $M_i, i \in I$ be a infinite family of $A$-modules. Define their tensor product $\bigotimes_{i \in I} M_i$ to be a representing object of the functor of multilinear ...
15
votes
4answers
6k views

Famous exercise from Lang's Algebra

There's a famous story about an exercise from Lang's Algebra that says something along the lines of "pick up a homological algebra book and prove all of the theorems yourself". I cannot find it in ...
4
votes
2answers
786 views

when are epimorphisms of algebraic objects surjective?

let $C$ be the category of $\tau$-algebras for some type $\tau$. consider the statements: every monomorphism is regular. every epimorphism in C is surjective. it is easy to see that 1. implies 2. ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

Generalization of the shakehands/condom puzzle?

The classic handshake puzzle goes something like this: "Given that everyone has a different skin disease, how can you safely shake hands with 3 people when you have only 2 gloves?" Its common ...
39
votes
5answers
3k views

when is A isomorphic to A^3?

this is totally elementary, but I have no idea how to solve it: let $A$ be an abelian group such that $A$ is isomorphic to $A^3$. is then $A$ isomorphic to $A^2$? probably no, but how construct a ...
0
votes
1answer
3k views

Newbie boolean algebra question [closed]

The Majority Function is 1: A.B.¬C + A.¬B.C + ¬A.B.C + A.B.C I can see intuitively that it can be simplified to 2: A.B + A.C + B.C and thus A.(B + C) + B.C but how can I use boolean algebra to ...
3
votes
2answers
762 views

computation, algebra, logic

So a really simple way of describing a digital computer is to say that it is a device for performing boolean operations. You feed it a bunch of bit strings, which is a description of the problem and ...
2
votes
2answers
174 views

Decomposition result for multivariate polynomial

Let $k$ be a positive integer greater than $1$ and suppose that $F \in \mathbb{Z}[x_{1}, \ldots, x_{k}]$. Can we always find a natural number $n(k)$ and $f_{1}, \ldots f_{n(k)} \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ ...
5
votes
3answers
227 views

Inverses in convolution algebras

Let $G$ be a locally compact totally disconnected group, and to make life easy let's suppose its Haar measure is bi-invariant. Let $C_c(G)$ be the space of locally constant complex functions on $G$ ...
14
votes
6answers
3k views

Do convolution and multiplication satisfy any nontrivial algebraic identities?

For (suitable) real- or complex-valued functions f and g on a (suitable) abelian group G, we have two bilinear operations: multiplication - (f.g)(x) = f(x)g(x), and convolution - (f*g)(x) = ...
32
votes
17answers
4k views

Canonical examples of algebraic structures

Please list some examples of common examples of algebraic structures. I was thinking answers of the following form. "When I read about a [insert structure here], I immediately think of [example]." ...