Here is a simple example of size continuum. Do the ordinary middle-third construction of the Cantor set, except that whenever you delete the $n$-th (numbered by level and then left to right, say) middle-third interval leave in exactly $n$ points from that interval. Let's call the resulting set $X$. Any automorphism of $X$ must map (resp. left-, right-) isolated points to (resp. left-, right-) isolated points. Since we left a different number of points in each middle-third interval, the automorphism must fix every inner point of each middle-third interval as well as its two endpoints. By density, it follows that the automorphism fixes every point of $X$.

All of your examples are scattered, I checked the Rosenstein's *Linear Orderings* to see if he had anything good to say about which scattered linear orders are rigid. To my dismay, this is what I found: "These considerations seem to make impossible an inductive argument (on $F$-rank or $VD$-rank) to determine which scattered types are rigid." (p. 133) However, he does cite a result of Anne Morel (*Ordering relations admitting automorphisms*, Fund. Math. 54 (1964), 279-284.) which says that a linear order $A$ is not rigid if and only if $A \cong A_1 + A_2\times\mathbb{Z} + A_3$ for some linear orderings $A_1,A_2,A_3$, with $A_2$ nonempty.

Dense examples of rigid subsets of $\mathbb{R}$ would be interesting to see. This is probably not too difficult to construct under CH. But a ZFC example might have to deal with important barriers such as Baumgartner's result that *All ${\aleph_1}$-dense subsets of $\mathbb{R}$ can be isomorphic*, Fund. Math. 79 (1973), 101-106. Maybe there are some examples in this classic paper of Sierpinski *Sur les types d'ordre des ensembles linéaires*, Fund. Math. 37 (1950), 253-264.

All three papers can be found here.

Addendum (after sdcvvc's comment): For the sake of completeness, I'm including a simplification of the Dushnik-Miller argument that produces a dense subset $X$ of $\mathbb{R}$ which is rigid (though not the stronger result that $X$ has no self-embeddings).

To ensure density, the set $X$ will contain all rational numbers. Note that an automorphism $f$ of $X$ is then completely determined by its restriction to $\mathbb{Q}$. Indeed, since $f[\mathbb{Q}]$ must be dense (in $X$ and) in $\mathbb{R}$, we always have

$f(x) = \sup\{f(q):q \in (-\infty,x)\cap\mathbb{Q}\} = \inf\{f(q):q \in (x,\infty)\cap\mathbb{Q}\}.$

There are only $c = 2^{\aleph_0}$ increasing maps $f:\mathbb{Q}\to\mathbb{R}$ with dense range. Let $\langle f_\alpha:\alpha<c \rangle$ enumerate all such maps, except for the identity on $\mathbb{Q}$.

We will define by induction a sequence $\langle (x_\alpha,y_\alpha) : \alpha<c \rangle$ of pairs of irrational numbers. The $x_\alpha$ will be points of $X$ while the $y_\alpha$ will be in the complement of $X$. For each $\alpha$, we will have $f_\alpha(x_\alpha) = y_\alpha$ (in the sense of the inf/sup definition above).

Suppose we have defined $(x_\beta,y_\beta)$ for $\beta<\alpha$. Since $f_\alpha$ is not the identity, there is a rational $q$ such that $f_\alpha(q) \neq q$. Let's suppose that $f_\alpha(q) > q$ (the case $f_\alpha(q) < q$ is symmetric). Since the real interval $(q,f_\alpha(q))$ has size $c$ and the extension of $f_\alpha$ to all of $\mathbb{R}$ is injective, we can always pick

$x_\alpha \in (q,f_\alpha(q)) \setminus(\mathbb{Q}\cup\{y_\beta:\beta<\alpha\})$

such that $y_\alpha = f_\alpha(x_\alpha) \notin \mathbb{Q}\cup\{x_\beta:\beta<\alpha\}$. Note that $x_\alpha < f_\alpha(q) < y_\alpha$ so $x_\alpha \neq y_\alpha$.

In the end, we will have

$\{x_\alpha: \alpha < c\} \cap \{y_\alpha : \alpha<c\} = \varnothing$

and any set $X$ such that

$\mathbb{Q}\cup\{x_\alpha:\alpha<c\} \subseteq X \subseteq \mathbb{R}\setminus\{y_\alpha:\alpha<c\}$

is necessarily rigid since $f_\alpha(x_\alpha) = y_\alpha \notin X$ for each $\alpha<c$.