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Consider $n$ individuals {$1,2, \ldots, n$}. For each (unordered) pair of individuals $i \neq j$ we consider a random variable $X_{i,j}$ that can be thought of as the distance between $i$ and $j$. Each individual kills its closest neighbour (everything happens at the same time). Can we say anything about the distribution of the number of survivors in the limit $n \to \infty$?

The case $X_{i,j} = |Y_i-Y_j|$ where $Y_1, \ldots,Y_N$ are $n$ i.i.d random variables uniformly distributed on $[0,1]$ is the famous "birds on wire" problem.

What about the case where the random variables $X_{i,j}$ are independent and exponentially distributed, say? Has it been studied in the literature?

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If the RVs are independent and non-atomic, then the distribution does not matter. –  Ori Gurel-Gurevich Apr 7 '12 at 19:21

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up vote 2 down vote accepted

The number of people who kill any given $i$ has asymptotically Poisson distribution (since the events that $j$ kills $i$ for different $j$s are almost independent). Thus the number of survivors $S$ is roughly $N/e$. Since different $i$s are also nearly independent, $S$ is roughly normal.

The oriented version, where dependence is even weaker is just the range of a random function, which is quite simple to analyze.

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thanks - this makes sense and is verified by a quick simulation. I guess that I have overestimated the dependence between the different individuals. This was motivated by the case where $X_{i,j} = d(Y_i,Y_j)$ where each $Y_i$ is uniformly distributed on the unit 2d square, as discussed on this blog post The dependence structure in this case seems more intricate. –  Alekk Apr 8 '12 at 18:21

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