I think computation of the Euler characteristic of a real variety is not a problem in theory.

There are some nice papers like *J.W. Bruce, Euler characteristics of real varieties*.

But suppose we have, say, a very specific real nonsingular hypersurface, given by a polynomial, or a nice family of such hypersurfaces. What is the least cumbersome approach to computation of $\chi(V)$? One can surely count the critical points of an appropriate Morse function, but I hope it's not the only possible way.

(Since I am talking about dealing with specific examples, here's one: $f (X_1,\ldots,X_n) = X_1^3 - X_1 + \cdots + X_n^3 - X_n = 0$, where $n$ is odd.)

**Update:** the original motivation is the following: the well-known results by Oleĭnik, Petrovskiĭ, Milnor, and Thom give upper bounds on $\chi (V)$ or $b(V) = \sum_i b_i (V)$ that are exponential in $n$. It is easy to see that this is unavoidable, e.g. $(X_1^2 - X_1)^2 + \cdots + (X_n^2 - X_n)^2 = 0$ is an equation of degree $4$ that defines exactly $2^n$ isolated points in $\mathbb{R}^n$. I was interested in specific families of real algebraic sets with large $\chi (V)$ or $b (V)$ *defined by one equation of degree $3$*. I couldn't find an appropriate reference with such examples and it seems like a proof for such example would require some computations (unlike the case of degree $4$).