A very readable reference for constructible derived categories on quotient stacks is Bernstein-Lunts, Equivariant sheaves and functors. In particular, Bernstein and Lunts construct the bounded derived category of sheaves on $[X/G]$ as the limit of truncated bounded derived categories of the "Borel constructions" $X\times_G E$ where $E$ is a sufficiently acyclic free $G$-space. A key observation is that $E$ does not have to be contractible, only acyclic enough, to know a piece of $D^b([X/G])$. So when one considers algebraic varieties and linear algebraic group actions, one can let $E$ be e.g. the Stiefel manifold of $k$-frames in a vector space of a very large dimension. This allows one to describe all the pushforward and pullback functors one could wish for in terms of the respective functors for algebraic varieties, or at worst, spaces.

There is one important exception: if $X$ and $Y$ are equipped with actions of $G$, respectively $H$, $f:G\to H$ is a group homomorphism and $F:X\to Y$ is a map such that $F(gx)=f(g)F(x)$ for all $g\in G,x\in X$, then there is the pushforward fuctor $F_*:D^+([X/G])\to D^+([Y/H])$. This functor comes up in many applications, but to define it Bernstein and Lunts use infinite-dimensional spaces, and I don't know if there is a way around this.