Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $K$. Call a linear map $F : V^* \to K$ *representable* if there is some $v \in V$ such that $F(w) = \langle w,v \rangle$ for all $w \in V^*$. Here, $\langle w,v \rangle := w(v)$. Remark that this representing vector $v$ is then uniquely determined.

Remark the similarity to category theory: A functor $F : C^{\mathrm{op}} \to \mathrm{Set}$ is representable if there is an object $v \in C$ such that $F \cong C(-,v)$. By the Yoneda Lemma, this object is uniquely determined up to canonical isomorphism. Now there are various theorems which say when a certain functor is representable. Often we require that $F$ preserves limits and satisfies some finiteness condition.

Now back to linear algebra, is there a criterion when a linear map $V^* \to K$ is representable? In other words, is there an intrinsic description of the image of $V \to V^{**}$? If $V$ is finite-dimensional, then we get representability for free. I'm interested in the general case. I would like to mimic somehow the category theoretic conditions.

// Moosbrugger has given below the following nice characterization: Give $K$ the discrete topology, $K^V$ the product topology, and $V^* \subseteq K^V$ the subspace topology. Then a linear map $V^* \to K$ is representable iff it is continuous! However, the proof is rather trivial, except that it uses the result for finite-dimensional vector spaces. So in practise, I doubt that this will be a good criterion. Therefore I would add the following requirement to the criterion: it should be useful in practise (whatever this means) or linear algebraic / geometric: When is a hyperplane in $V^*$ cut out by a single vector $v \in V$?