Say I have a ring, $R$, with 1 which I consider my universe, and I know its group of units $G=\mathbb{G}_m(R)$. Then given a subgroup, $H\le G$, can I determine if there is there a subring $S_H$ such that $\mathbb{G}_m(S)=H$? If so, is $S_H$ unique with this group of units? If so, is there in fact a--canonical in the sense above--1-1 correspondence between subgroups of $G$ and subrings of $R$ with 1? Preliminary attempts at a solution don't indicate any problems with the truth of the statement, but naturally one should be skeptical of limited data especially in a subject with so many intricacies as groups and rings.

The motivating example is $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\mathbb{Q}$, due to some interesting number theory that could come out of such a correspondence.

In the case of fields the question is supposed to collapse into the question "Can I add 0 to a subgroup of the group of units of some big field and get a subfield without doing anything else?"

There is no possibility for general rings, but are there assumptions on $R$ or $G$ which can ensure existence or uniqueness? And it is also fine to induce assumptions on what kind of $S$ we are allowed to have as well, fields instead of just rings for example.

interestingthat I will not elaborate upon») are not a good way of making use of the potential of MO. – Mariano Suárez-Alvarez♦ Nov 1 '11 at 11:45