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Say I want to verify the feasibility of

$$Ax \equiv b \text{ (mod } k)$$

where $A \in \mathbb{Z}^{m \times n}, b \in \mathbb{Z}^{m}$ and $k \in \mathbb{N}$. Is there a fast way to verify if there is such an $x$ when $n$ and $k$ are bounded by a constant. Even the case of $n=2$ is of interest to me.

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By faster, you mean faster than computing a Hermite normal form of A modulo k? – felix Oct 19 '11 at 17:15

Yes, for $k$ prime you use gaussian elimination, for $k$ composite, use gaussian elimination with respect to the prime factors.

EDIT @Emil is right, of course. For prime powers, check out:

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I don’t think this works when $k$ is not square free. For instance, $pAx\equiv pb$ is always solvable mod $p$, but its solvability mod $p^2$ is equivalent to the solvability of $Ax\equiv b\pmod p$. Gaussian elimination does not directly apply to prime powers either, it relies on the ring being a field. – Emil Jeřábek Oct 19 '11 at 15:23

There are two simple approaches.

1. If you prefer to do all of your algebra modulo k, the best way to do this is to compute the Smith Normal form of the matrix A (or more generally, a related matrix). You can do this by multiplication of unimodular matrices on the left and right of A (i.e. elementary row and column operations respectively) to compute greatest common divisors.

  • First, compute the greatest common divisor of the first column, together with k, in the (1,1) coefficient (which will change the value of the first row in general).
  • Then, compute the greatest common divisor of the first row, together with k, again producing the result in the (1,1) coefficient (which will change the value of the first column in general).

... And so forth, until the (1,1) coefficient divides all coefficients in the first row and also the first column; then clear the first row and first column. Repeat this for the second row/column, etc. until you have only coefficients on the diagonal; and all the while, keep track of the products of unimodular matrices which you accumulate on the left and right. Doing so yields unimodular matrices U,V such that S = VAU has only elements on the diagonal; and the system Ax ≡ b (mod k) is then equivalent to the system Sz ≡ Vb (mod k), where we perform the substitution z = U−1x. This system is solvable if and only if each row individually is solvable; and for any solution z, we may obtain a solution x = Uz of the original system.

2. An equivalent approach which is not restricted to artihmetic mod k, which is likely to be faster in practise, is to reduce to Diophantine equations. To wit: a linear congruence of the form $$ \mathbf a_j \cdot \mathbf x \equiv b_j \pmod{k}$$ should instead be interpreted as the equivalent Diophantine equation $$ \mathbf a_j \cdot \mathbf x + k d_j = b_j \\;,$$ introducing a new auxiliary variable dj  for the multiple of k which is neglected in the modular arithmetic. One can express an entire system Ax ≡ b (mod k) of such equations — involving the same modulus; but different moduli for each equation can be easily accomodated — by the system of integer equations $$ \Bigl[\\;\\; A \\;\\;\Big|\\;\\; k I \;\;\Bigr] (\mathbf x \oplus \mathbf d) = \mathbf b \;.$$ In reference to Felix's comment above, you then compute a Hermite Normal Form (or any upper-triangular matrix, really) using unimodular transformations. If C = [ A | kI ], then one looks for the unimodular transformation U such that C' = CU is in Hermite normal form (in fact, any upper-triangular form will do); this may be done incrementally by column reduction to clear out rows, starting with the last one. One may then solve the system of equations $$ C' \mathbf z = \mathbf b $$ over the reals, performing the substitution z = U -1 (x ⊕ d). The final several coefficients of z will be fixed, and will be integer-valued if there are any solutions at all to the original system of equations; and the first several will be free parameters, albeit ones which should range only over ℤ. Then, we may solve for x by computing (x ⊕ d) = Uz.

[This answer is completely revised, replacing an answer which I deleted after realizing that it was wrong; I subsequently added a reference to the Smith Normal Form above.]

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As far as I can see, it’s possible that the given solution mod $p^t$ cannot be extended to a solution mod $p^{t+1}$, even though another one can. You’d thus need to keep a list of all solutions of the equation, which can be exponentially many. Or am I missing something? – Emil Jeřábek Oct 19 '11 at 16:59
@Emil: you were right, of course. Please see my completely revised answer. – Niel de Beaudrap Nov 16 '11 at 19:17

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