In general there is no relation: for example consider the simplest case $S$ itself is diagonal and invertible. Letting $D_1=S^{-1}$ then $A$ can be any diagonal matrix $D_2$. The only considerations you can do are related to the presence of the zero eigenvalues using Binet formula for determinants. Notice also that in general $A$ itself can be nonsymmetric, and its eigenvalues can be complex. However small perturbations, i.e. small $D_1$ and $D_2$, result in a small perturbation of the eigenvalues of $S$ in the complex plane.