It's not hard to compute numerical values. If you do this, in the regime $0 < q < 1$ it looks like $C_n$ grows exponentially, i. e. $C_n \sim \alpha_q \beta_q^n$ for some constants $\alpha_q$ and $\beta_q$ which depend on q.

Unfortunately, I don't know what $\alpha_q$ and $\beta_q$ are. For example, when q = 1/2 the ratio $C_n/C_{n-1}$ approaches a constant which is approximately 1.6022827223; I claim this is $\beta_{1/2}$. Then $C_{50}/\beta_{1/2}^{50} = 0.5757566503$, which I claim is $\alpha_{1/2}$. Neither of these constants appears in the inverse symbolic calculator.

The generating function $C(q,z) = C_0 + C_1 z + C_2 z^2 + \ldots$, where the $C_n$ are $q$-Catalan numbers, ought to satisfy some functional equation, and then one could use techniques from singularity analysis (see, for example, *Analytic Combinatorics* by Flajolet and Sedgewick). But I am having trouble finding that functional equation.