In brief, you should talk to your dissertation advisor and/or the chair of your department. If you have a graduate assembly or similar student resource, you should avail yourself of it. They will be able to give you answers which apply to your immediate environment; MathOverflow users may not be able to do that.
The people I mention are placed in positions of power and trust. If they are doing their jobs, they should be able to hold confidences. Also, at some point you will have to test your idea, and that will usually involve revealing it to someone; if you don't have that someone, what are you going to do?
I have a fair share of paranoia, so I also have some sympathy for your position. I recommend that, in addition to using your resources at hand, you find someone you can place in a position of trust, so that you not only journal the stuff of which you want to claim priority, but you pick your new friend ( say a grad student in the geology department) and keep her apprised of what is going on. (I have seen this sort of practice when I was in grad school.) This is if you really think you need a witness later.
Your question number 3 might deserve its own question, but with less volatile wording. However, I think you will find this community unwilling to say much about anything but the most egregious cases. (Basically, it depends on who you think deserves more credit: the guy with the idea or the guy who made it work? Joint papers are the norm for a reason.)
Gerhard "Ask Me About System Design" Paseman, 2011.08.05