Let $n>1$ be an integer, and let us consider the set $P(n)$ of all prime numbers $p$ such that $p$ is not congruent to $1$ modulo $n$. Dirichlet's Density Theorem tells us that $P(n)$ has a natural density, equal to $$1-\varphi(n)^{-1}$$ where $\varphi(n) = |(\mathbb Z /n)^\ast|$ is Euler's totient.

From the Frobenian point of view, saying that $p$ is congruent to $1$ modulo $n$ is to say that the ideal $(p)$ splits completely in the cyclotomic field $\mathbb Q(\zeta_n)$.

From Chebotarev's point of view, saying that $p$ is congruent to $1$ modulo $n$ is to say that the Frobenius element over $p$ in $\operatorname{Gal}(\mathbb Q(\zeta_n)|\mathbb Q) \simeq (\mathbb Z /n)^\ast$ is the identity.

So far so good, now let us consider the set $P$ of all prime numbers $p$ which are not congruent to $1$ modulo $n^2$ for any $n>1$, that is
$$P := \bigcap_{n>1}P(n^2) = \bigcap_{\ell\mathrm{ prime}}P(\ell^2)$$
Supposing that "the events $P(\ell^2)$ are uncorrelated" for different $\ell$'s, we can phantasise about the density of $P$, hoping it might be (at least up to a rational factor, I don't vouch for it)
$$\operatorname{dens}(P) = \prod_\ell 1-\frac{1}{\ell(\ell-1)} \quad = 0.37395581361920228805...$$
a number called *Artin's constant* (it appears in Artins primitive root conjecture, which is similar in nature). The question whether $P$, or similarly constructed sets of primes, have a density and whether it is the expected one goes far beyond the density theorems of Dirichlet, Frobenius and Chebotarev. The corresponding Galois extension would be the maximal cyclotomic extension of $\mathbb Q$, which is ramified everywhere.

Can you name this problem? Have you seen it before? Where?

Hooley (1967) has shown that Artins primitive root conjecture follows from GRH. In principle, the problem of determining the density of $P$ should be simpler.

Under GRH, is it true that the density of $P$ exists and is equal to Artin's constant?