Given a compact smooth manifold $M \subset R^k$ there is a Polynom $f\in R[x_1,..x_n]$ such that the zero set of $f$ is diffeomorphic to $M$. Can the coefficients of $f$ be pertubated slightly to a Polynomial $g \in Q[x_1,..x_n]$ such that the zero set of $g$ is diffeotopic to $M$? Are their conditions on the homology or homotopy on $M$ such that such a pertubation process is possible / not possible? What happens if Q is replaced by an arbitrary number field K?

Yes: proven in Ballico, E., Tognoli, A., Algebraic models deﬁned over $\mathbb{Q}$ of diﬀerential manifolds. Geom. Dedicata 42 (1992), no. 2, 155–161. In fact, you can get the zero set to be diffeomorphic to $M$, not just diffeotopic. 

