As mentioned by Rbega the question should be amended to ask whether it's true that a closed manifold $M$ without conjugate points admits a metric of **non-positive** (rather than negative) curvature (otherwise a torus is an obvious counterexample).
In that form this is a well-known open problem. The exponential map at any point is a universal covering of $M$ and the geodesics in $\tilde M$ are unique. This does show that $M$ is aspherical but that is a long way from admitting a metric of nonpositive curvature.

There are some partial results suggesting that fundamental groups of manifolds without conjugate points share some properties of fundamental groups of nonpositively curved manifolds.
In particular, there is a result of Croke and Shroeder that if the metric is analytic then any abelian subgroup of $\pi_1(M)$ is embedded quasi-isometrically. By the following observation of Bruce Kleiner the analyticity condition can be removed: Croke and Schroeder show that even without assuming analyticity for any $\gamma\in\pi_1(M)$ its minimal displacement $d_\gamma$ satisfies $d_{\gamma^n}=nd_\gamma$ for any $n\ge1$. This then implies that $d_\gamma=\lim_{n\to\infty} d(\gamma^nx,x)/n$ for any $x\in\tilde M$. This in turn implies that the restriction of $d$ to an abelian subgroup $H \simeq \mathbb Z^n$ extends to a norm on $\mathbb R^n$. This implies that $H$ is quasi-isometrically embedded.

This result implies for example that nonflat nilmanifolds cannot admit metrics without conjugate points and more generally that every solvable subgroup of the fundamental group of a manifold without conjugate points is virtually abelian.

But it's unlikely that any such manifold admits a metric of non-positive curvature. It is more probable that its fundamental group must satisfy some weaker condition such as *semi-hyperbolicity* but even that is completely unclear. The natural *bicombing* on $\tilde M$ given by geodesics need not satisfy the fellow traveler property (at least there is no clear reason where it should come from).

So it might be worth trying to look for counterexamples and the first place I would look is among groups that are semi-hyperbolic but not $CAT(0)$. Specifically, any $CAT(0)$ group has the property that centralizers of non-torsion elements virtually split. This need not hold in a semi-hyperbolic group with the simplest example given by any nontrivial circle bundle over closed surfaces of genus $>1$. To be even more specific one can take the unit tangent bundle $T^1(S_g)$ to a hyperbolic surface. Note however that it's known that a closed homogenous manifold without conjugate points is flat so if there is a metric without conjugate points on $T^1(S_g)$ it can not be homogeneous.
*Edit: Actually, this last remark is irrelevant as $T^1(S_g)$ can not admit any homogeneous metrics at all.*