For $u$ to be from $C^2$ it is enough that the modulus of continuity of $f$ satisfies the Dini condition. For example, modulus of continuity $\omega(h)=1/(|log h|+1)^2$ is not marjorised by the Holder modulus of continuity $\omega(h)=C h^\alpha$.

The same goes for coeffitients of elliptic equations. In the work “A priori bounds and some properties for solutions of elliptic and parabolic equations”, Uspekhi Mat. Nauk, 18:4(112) (1963), 215–216, Kruzhkov notes that the problem of continuity of higher derivatives of solutions of elliptic equations is closely connected with the question of when for a function of several independent variables condition of the existence of pure continuous derivatives of order net $l\ge2$ implies the existence of mixed derivatives of the same order. He gives nesessary and suffitient condition for it. Namely, denote $\omega(h)$ the modulus of continuity of the order $l$ pure derivatives of $u$ and $\omega^*(h)=\int_0^h\frac{\omega(t)}t dt$ the second modulus of continuity. Then in order that all mixed derivatives were continuous (in some domain $Q\subset\mathbb R^n$) it is necessary and sufficient that the module continuity $\omega^* (h) $ satisfies the Dini condition. Moreover, if $\omega^* $ satisfies the Dini condition, then all
mixed derivatives of order $l$ in any strictly interior subdomain $Q'\subset Q$ have
modulus of continuity, which does not exceed $Cw^* $. If $\omega^*$ does not satisfy the Dini condition, then there exists a function $u$ which at some point of $Q$ have no mixed derivatives of order $l$.