(Edit: The first formulation is wrong. See the second answer) Does every totally ordered set contain an unbounded countable subset. In other words: If S is a totally ordered set, can we find a (edit: at most) countable subset A, such that for every $s \in S$, there is a $a \in A, a\geq s$?

There is a counterexample in the long line L. It is totally ordered and every sequence has a limit in L. see the following: 


Keyword: cofinality. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cofinality Added MUCH later: To be slightly more explicit, for any cardinal $\kappa$, the cofinality of the successor cardinal $\kappa^+$ is $\kappa^+$, so not only can we not in general find an unbounded (=cofinal) countable subset, there is no fixed cardinality $\kappa$ such that every totally ordered set has an unbounded subset of cardinality at most $\kappa$. 

