Given an immersion of the n-1-sphere into a (closed) n-manifold, when does it extend to an immersion of the n-disk?

Remark: If the sphere had dimension k smaller than n-1, then such an immersion would exist if and only if the corresponding map from the k-sphere to the Stiefel manifold is 0-homotopic. This is the Hirsch-Smale Theorem and in fact an example of an h-principle. However the case k=n-1 is exactly the exceptional case which does NOT obey an h-principle. Easy examples (Figure 8.1. in the book by Eliashberg-Mishachev) show that there exist immersions of the circle in the plane which have a formal extension but not a genuine extension to the 2-disk. So, is there anything known about sufficient conditions for extendability?