Names in category theory are often born when someone realizes that a concept in one particular topic can be generalized in a categorical way. The generally-defined concept is then named after the original narrowly-defined one.
The case of metric spaces provides a slightly notorious example. As discussed in that other question, metric spaces can be viewed as an example of enriched categories. So, given any concept in metric space theory, you can try to generalize it to the context of enriched categories. This happened with the property of completeness of metric spaces, which one might call Cauchy-completeness since it's about Cauchy sequences. This concept turns out to generalize very smoothly to enriched categories, and to be a useful and important property there.
Many people call the property "Cauchy-completeness" in the general context of enriched categories too. But a significant minority disagree with this choice, feeling that it's stretching the terminology too far. For example, when applied to ordinary (Set-enriched) categories, the property merely says that every idempotent morphism in the category splits. This doesn't "feel" like the completeness condition on metric spaces. So there are other names in currency too, such as "Karoubi complete" (especially popular in the French school).
It's true that many pieces of categorical terminology do come from analysis, but maybe all that says is that analysis is an old and venerable subject. Exact is another example. It's used to mean several slightly different things in category theory, confusingly, but the most common usage is that a functor is "left exact" if it preserves finite limits. Now that comes from homological algebra, where one talks about exact sequences; a functor between abelian categories preserves left exact sequences iff it preserves finite limits. And that in turn, I believe, comes from the terminology of differential equations.