As Ryan points out, if Y is allowed to be disconnected, then there is no hope, since the loop-space construction sees only the connected component of the basepoint. But even if Y is assumed to be connected, it is not unique. For instance, let G and H be two discrete groups whose underlying sets are bijective, but which are not isomorphic. Then as (discrete) topological spaces, we have $G\simeq H$, and so both $K(G,1)$ and $K(H,1)$ are spaces Y such that $\Omega Y \simeq G \simeq H$. But $K(G,1)$ and $K(H,1)$ are not homotopy equivalent unless $G\cong H$ as groups.
What is true, however, is that if we remember the "up-to-coherent-homotopy" multiplication (i.e. "$A_\infty$-structure") on a loop space $\Omega Y$, then the connected space Y is characterized up to homotopy equivalence by $\Omega Y$ and this additional data. For there is a delooping functor "B" from $A_\infty$-spaces to connected spaces, which preserves homotopy equivalence, and such that $B\Omega Y \simeq Y$.