What are the recent and new applications of Mathematics in other Sciences ?

Let me try to be more precise about the question:

- By "recent" I mean the last 15 years.
- By "new" I want to exclude the standard answers like cryptography or finance
- By "applications" I mean a mathematical concept (or even a trick) successfully used in another field (preferably not Theoretical Physics) to solve a problem or to shed a new light on a phenomenon.
- I would prefer to see recent applications of modern Mathematics, but new applications of classical results should be considered as a valid answer too.
- the answer should not simply be "XXX was successfully applied to YYY". it should contain a short explanation of the mathematical concept involve, and a description of the problem/phenomenon it solved/enlightened.

The typical example I have in mind does not strictly answer the question (first it is an application of Theoretical Physics to condensed matter, and then I am not giving the required details): it seems that some 2d quantum field theories which had a priori no physical meaning were successfully used to understand properties of graphene (I think this was really unexpected: 2d conformal field theory was considered as a toy model to approach the understanding of more relevant field theories in higher dimension).

v2: I hope this version is better than the previous one.

againstclosing - although I am instinctively not keen on the question, it seems a reasonable one with decent criteria for what would constitute a good answer. (It would help to give some idea of what counts as "recent", though) – Yemon Choi Apr 24 '11 at 22:32insteadneed to write a comment cancelling one of Yemon's, André's or my "anti-votes". – Scott Morrison♦ Apr 24 '11 at 22:43