What are the recent and new applications of Mathematics in other Sciences ?
Let me try to be more precise about the question:
- By "recent" I mean the last 15 years.
- By "new" I want to exclude the standard answers like cryptography or finance
- By "applications" I mean a mathematical concept (or even a trick) successfully used in another field (preferably not Theoretical Physics) to solve a problem or to shed a new light on a phenomenon.
- I would prefer to see recent applications of modern Mathematics, but new applications of classical results should be considered as a valid answer too.
- the answer should not simply be "XXX was successfully applied to YYY". it should contain a short explanation of the mathematical concept involve, and a description of the problem/phenomenon it solved/enlightened.
The typical example I have in mind does not strictly answer the question (first it is an application of Theoretical Physics to condensed matter, and then I am not giving the required details): it seems that some 2d quantum field theories which had a priori no physical meaning were successfully used to understand properties of graphene (I think this was really unexpected: 2d conformal field theory was considered as a toy model to approach the understanding of more relevant field theories in higher dimension).
v2: I hope this version is better than the previous one.