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If L is a semisimple lie algebra then L=[L,L]. Is the opposite true?

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No. A Lie algebra satisfying that property is called perfect. For an example of a perfect Lie algebra that isn't semisimple, take a semisimple $L$ and an irreducible representation $V$ of $L$, and define a bracket on $L \times V$ by $$ [(X,v),(Y,u)] := ([X,Y],Xu-Yv). $$ This turns $L \times V$ into a perfect Lie algebra with $\text{Rad}(L \times V) = V$.

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Maybe it's also helpful to mention the substantial though often isolated literature on perfect Lie algebras and related structure theory? There are some interesting connections with other questions, as in the paper by Benkart and Zelmanov in Invent. Math. 126 (1996), 1-45. –  Jim Humphreys Apr 5 '11 at 13:08

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