I am curious if the setup for (co)homology theory appears outside the realm of pure mathematics. The idea of a family of groups linked by a series of arrows such that the composition of consecutive arrows is zero seems like a fairly general notion, but I have not come across it in fields like biology, economics, etc. Are there examples of non-trivial (co)homology appearing outside of pure mathematics?
I think Hatcher has a couple illustrations of homology in his textbook involving electric circuits. This is the type of thing I'm looking for, but it still feels like topology since it is about closed loops. Since the relation $d^2=0$ seems so simple to state, I would imagine this setup to be ubiquitous. Is it? And if not, why is it so special to topology and related fields?