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The following statement is well-known: for a Fréchet space $V$ and a closed subspace $W \subseteq V$ the quotient $V / W$ is again complete and hence a Fréchet space. For the particular case of a Banach space the same statement holds true.

Beyond the metrizable case this is no longer correct. So my first question is about a good counter-example, i.e. a complete locally convex space $V$ with a closed subspace $W$ such that $V / W$ is no longer complete.

My second question is whether counter-examples necessarily arise beyond the metrizable case, i.e. does every complete lcs have a closed subspace with a non-complete quotient? In other words, does the above quotient property characterize Fréchet spaces?

My third question is how the situation looks like for sequentially complete lcs with sequentially closed subspace. Are there any positive results/situations where the quotient is at least sequentially complete again?

Thanks a lot.

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2 Answers 2

up vote 2 down vote accepted

A counterexample for both the first and third questions can be found in Counterexamples in Topological Vector Spaces by Khaleelulla (p. 108).

Let $W$ denote the space of all $\mathbb C$-valued sequences $(x_n)$ and $\Phi$ the space of finite sequences. Let $E=E_1\oplus E_2$ where $E_1$ is the topological countable direct sum of copies of $W$ and $E_2$ is the topological countable product of copies of $\Phi$. $E$ is a complete locally convex space but the quotient $E/M$ where $M=\{(u,u):\ u\in E_1\cap E_2 \}$ is not even sequentially complete.

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thanks, I will try to get this book in the library. Any ideas for the second question? –  Stefan Waldmann Mar 7 '11 at 13:36

For the second question, consider the direct sum $Z$ of infinitely many copies of the scalar field. Given any subspace $X$, any algebraic complement $Y$ to the subspace is also a topological complement to $X$, so the quotient $Z/X$ is linearly homeomorphic to $Y$, which is again a direct sum of copies of the scalar field.

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many thanks also to you! –  Stefan Waldmann Mar 8 '11 at 9:11

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