Consider the Möbius function $\mu (m)$. (Thus $\mu(m)=0$ unless all prime factors of $m$ appear once and $\mu (m)=(-1)^r$ if $m$ has $r$ distinct prime factors.) Next consider for some natural number $n$ the discrete Fourier transform

$$\hat \mu (k)= \frac1n \sum _{r=0}^{n-1} \mu(r)e^{2 \pi i rk/n}.$$

So $\sum _{k=0}^{n-1} |\hat{\mu} (k)|^2$ is roughly $6/\pi ^2$; and the Prime Number Theorem asserts that $\hat \mu(0)=o(1)$;

My questions are:

1) Is it true (or even obvious based on PNT?) that the individual coefficients tend to 0?

2) Is it known that $\sum_{k=0}^{s}|\hat \mu (k)|^2=o(1)$, where say $s=\log n^A$? or perhaps for some other specific $s$ Fourier coefficients? (Here $A$ is suppose to be a large real even as large as some large power of $\log \log n$ but it can also be a small real.)

3) Is it perhaps known that the sum of squares of the largest (in absolute value) $s$ Fourier coefficients is $o(1)$? When $s=$ some power of $\log n$ as above?

4) What is expected to be the correct value of $s$ so that the sum of squares of absolute value of the highest $s$ Fourier coefficients are already not $o(1)$?

**UPDATE and AND A FOLLOW-UP QUESTION:**

The answers below give a very good picture regarding what is known for the individual Fourier coefficients unconditionally and under GRH. I am still curious if there are some cases that a bound on the contribution of a bunch of Fourier coefficients can be given which is better than what you obtain from individual coefficients. So here is a question:

5) Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $\cal P$ be its prime factors and let $Q(n,r)$ be all divisors of $n$ that involve at most $r$ primes in ${\cal P}$.

Consider $$\sum _{k \in Q(n,r)} |\hat{\mu} (k)|^2.$$

We now from the result on individual coefficients that this sum is o(1) for every $n$ if $r$ is bounded. Is it possible to prove that the sum is o(1) even when $r$ is a specific very slow growing function of n, where the bound of individual coefficients is not good enough? (We can ask a similar question about improving over the individual coeffient bound for $P(n,r)$ the set of all divisors of $n$ which are the product of at most $r$ primes in ${\cal P}$.) This example is geared towards the specific extension for the Walsh-Fourier coefficients. But there it seems that the knowledge regarding individual coefficients uconditionally and under GRH is weaker. **END of UPDATE**

The motivation came from a certain computational complexity extension of the prime number theorem which is discussed here and here. For the conjecture we will need Walsh expansions rather than Fourier expansion and we will need (3) for Walsh coefficients corresponding to sets of size $(\log n)^{(\log \log n)^t}$.

Here is a follow-up MO question about Walsh-Fourier transform]3, which has direct applications to the computational complexity question. "Transforming" the answers given here from the Fourier transform to the Walsh-Fourier transform will already have interesting consequences!