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I'm following the open courseware content on Machine Learning from Stanford University. In the lecture notes, it is given that

$$\Delta_A \ tr(ABA^TC) = CAB + C^TAB^T$$

which I tried but couldn't prove easily. It is not required to follow the course content but I just wondered and wanted to learn its proof. Any suggestions?

Update: $A$, $B$, and $C$ are matrices and $\Delta_A$ is the gradient operation on matrix $A$.

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Dear Ismail: it's not necessary to open with a salutation or have a closing like "kind wishes". I guess $A$, $B$, $C$ are square matrices of the same size; could you say what is meant by $\Delta_A$ please? Also, a direct link to the lecture notes would be very nice. –  Todd Trimble Feb 27 '11 at 16:56
Dear Todd: Thanks for you advice. I will take your remarks about how to ask a question into consideration. The course notes are here: Page 9, Eq. 3. –  İsmail Arı Feb 27 '11 at 17:07
I don't see the reason for getting a -1 for the question. Is that because I couldn't prove it easily? If so, why are there 8 current upvotes for the answer post. If I know the reason, I would update my questioning to mathoverflow community accordingly. –  İsmail Arı Apr 10 '11 at 23:23
I didn't downvote the question, but I can see a good reason for doing so, namely, the carelessness with which the question was presented. No indication of what $A$, $B$, $C$, and $\Delta_A$ were, not editing the question to include this information when the defect was brought to your attention - in fact, I've just decided to downvote the question. –  Gerry Myerson Apr 11 '11 at 2:18
Thanks for the warning. I updated the question. –  İsmail Arı Apr 11 '11 at 8:27

1 Answer 1

up vote 10 down vote accepted

I guess $\Delta_A$ denotes the derivative with respect to the elements of the matrix $A$ (more conventionally denoted by $\partial_{A}$).

To evaluate the derivative with respect to $A_{ij}$, write out the trace in terms of components and then use $\partial_{A_{ij}} A_{mn} = \delta_{im} \delta_{jn}$, $$\partial_{A_{ij}} \text{tr}(A B A^T C) = \partial_{A_{ij}}\sum_{mnkl} A_{mn} B_{nk} A_{lk} C_{lm}= \sum_{kl} B_{jk}A_{lk} C_{li} + \sum_{mn} A_{mn} B_{nj} C_{im} $$ $$= ( C^T A B^T+ C A B )_{ij}.$$ This is the component-wise version of your identity.

Note to the comment of Todd Trimble: the matrices $A,B$, and $C$ do not have to be necessarily square matrices. Their dimension just has to "match" ($A \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$, $B\in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$, $C \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times m}$, with $m$ and $n$ arbitrary integers).

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Dear Fabian: Your guess is correct. Sorry for missing definition. The operator in question is the gradient operation as you guessed. –  İsmail Arı Feb 27 '11 at 17:14

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