This is at best a partial answer but rather too long for a comment (I only adress the last paragraph of the question).

Indeed, if $X$ is locally compact second countable and the action of $G$ is proper then there exists a $G$-invariant metric compatible with the topology. As you suspect, this can be done by integrating the metric multiplied by a (generalized) *Bruhat function* (see Bourbaki, *Intégration*, VII, § 2, No. 4).

More precisely: Let $G$ be a locally compact group and fix a left Haar measure on $G$. The action of $G$ on a locally compact space $X$ (such that $X/G$ is paracompact) is proper if and only if there exists a continuous function $\beta: X \to [0,\infty)$ such that

- For every compact set $K \subset X$ the set $\operatorname{supp}\beta \cap GK$ is compact.
- For all $x \in X$ we have $\int_{G} \beta(g^{-1}x)\\,dg = 1$.

This fact is folklore but it is difficult to locate a simple proof in the literature. Therefore I've given a short one in Appendix E of my thesis, available here. Sometimes these functions are called cut-off functions but I don't like the name.

Using this, the existence of an invariant metric compatible with the topology on a locally compact second countable proper $G$-space $X$ is an easy exercise in integration theory: Pick any metric $d_{X}$ compatible with the topology and replace it by $\frac{d_{X}}{1+d_{X}}$ in case it is unbounded. Then put
\[
\delta_{X}(x,y) = \iint_{G \times G} \beta(g^{-1}x)\, \beta(h^{-1} y)\,
d_X (g^{-1}x, h^{-1}y)\,dh\,dg
\]
and verify that $\delta_{X}:X \times X \to [0,1)$ is an invariant metric compatible with the topology.

A similar and detailed argument can be found in one of the first few sections of Koszul's *Lectures on groups of transformations* (I think it's in the the third section of the first chapter but I can't verify this at the moment).

Finally, you're asking about the relation to amenability, here I also have at best some comments. Of course, proper actions are known to be topologically amenable (for instance because there is a Bruhat function). In the other direction, I think there is no hope. There are plenty of actions of amenable groups that can't be made into isometric actions (and any continuous action of an amenable group is amenable). Since Vaughn has given some nice examples, I can end this long post now.