This answer is a bit late; sorry for that.

Kummer's proof of the nonsolvability of $x^p + y^p = z^p$ for regular primes $p$
used “ideal numbers” (in present-day language: ideals) and was intact, at least
basically. Hilbert in his Zahlbericht gave a modified proof. Both proofs cover not
only rational integers but also numbers in $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta_p]$. On the other
hand, Kummer’s second result concerning irregular primes that satisfy certain
additional conditions covers just the rational integers (although Hilbert, in the very
last section of Zahlbericht, erroneously says that Kummer had proven this result for
$\mathbb{Z}[\zeta_p]$ as well). Thus one cannot exclude the possibility that there
is indeed a solution $(x,y,z)$ for $p=37$. And because of "Kolyvagin's criterion"
about $(2^{37}-2)/37$, this solution must belong to the second case,
that is, at least one of these three numbers $x,y,z$ in $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta_{37}]$
must have a common factor with $37$ (as mentioned by George Lowther).

By the way, this criterion was also proven by Taro Morishima in 1935 (Japan. J.
Math. 11, 241-252, Satz 1; but warning: Satz 2 or at least its proof is incorrect since
it is based on some incorrect result of Vandiver).

I don’t know how to find such a solution $(x,y,z)$.