Say $E$ is an elliptic curve over the rationals, of conductor $N$. There's a covering of $E$ by the modular curve $X_0(N)$, and if you rig it right then you can define this map over $\mathbf{Q}$: there's a map $\pi:X_0(N)\to E$ of algebraic varieties over $\mathbf{Q}$.

Now say I have an explicit $\mathbf{Q}$-point $P\in E(\mathbf{Q})$. Its pre-image in $X_0(N)$ will be a finite set of points, all defined over number fields. Perhaps a bit more conceptually, the pullback of $\pi$ via the map $Spec(\mathbf{Q})\to E$ induced by $P$ is a scheme $Spec(A)$ where $A$ is a finite $\mathbf{Q}$-algebra.

How would one go about actually computing these number fields in an explicit example? (or computing $A$, if you like). One can do computations in Jacobians of modular curves so easily these days using modular symbols, so I would imagine this is easy for the experts.

As an explicit example let's take a non-torsion point $P$ on an elliptic curve of rank two (so one can't "cheat" and do the calculation using Heegner points or cusps)---for example let $P$ be some random non-zero small height element of Mordell-Weil mod torsion in the rank two curve of conductor 389. What number fields do the points in the modular curve that map to $P$ cut out?