I think there are some theorems which are easier to prove in the diffeological framework, or as you say: for which the proof reveals more conceptual reasons. For example this one ?

**Proposition** Let $X$ be a connected diffeological space, let $\omega$ be a closed 2-form on $X$. Let $P_\omega \subset {\bf R}$ be its group of periods. If the group of periods $P_\omega$ is (diffeologically) discrete (that is, is a strict subgroup of $\bf R$) then there exists a family of non-equivalent principal fiber bundles $\pi : Y \to X$, with structure group the torus of periods $T_\omega = {\rm R} / P_\omega$, equipped with a connexion form $\lambda$ of curvature $\omega$. This family is indexed by the extension group ${\rm Ext}({\rm Ab}(\pi_1(X)), P_\omega)$.

This theorem is a generalization of the classical construction of the *prequantization bundle* of an integral symplectic (or pre-symplectic) manifold, that is the ones for which $P_\omega = a {\bf Z}$. Why such a generalization is interesting? Well, here are some comments:

1) The only condition for the existence of such "integration structures" is that the group of periods is diffeologically discrete, which is hidden in the classical construction by some technical hypothesis (countable at infinity or analog statements).

2) The space $Y$ is a quotient of the space ${\rm Paths}(X)$ on which the form $\omega$ is lifted modulo the action of a "Chain-Homotopy" operator (actually what is built by quotient is a groupoid and the bundle $Y$ is just the "half-groupoid"). So, the diffeological space ${\rm Paths}(X)$ is a master piece of this construction (but almost everywhere in diffeology), and the fact that diffeological spaces support differential forms (in particular ${\rm Paths}(X)$) with the whole tools of Cartan calculus is fundamental.

3) The generality of this theorem involve essentially "irrational tori", since in general the quotient $T_\omega$ is of course not a Lie group.

The last point illustrates why irrational tori are important in diffeology: *or you accept these objects or you give up this (kind of) theorems*. You may note that such a theorem doesn't exists in the restricted category of Frölicher spaces since irrational tori are trivial there. You may be happy with just the integral case, but in my opinion you miss a lot by not taking the whole generality of the construction, and putting fences where they do not exist.

I may give some other examples where diffeology give a shortcut for known classical theorems, and by the way extend them to objects which do not belong to the category of manifolds.

Here is an example of a more conventional theorem: *the homotopic invariance of De Rham cohomology*. Differential forms and De Rham cohomology are well defined concept in diffeology, they apply in particular on space of paths of diffeological spaces, spaces of smooth maps, quotients etc.

We use here the Chain-Homotopy operator
$$
K : \Omega^p(X) \to \Omega^{p-1}({\rm Paths}(X)) \quad \mbox{which satisfies} \quad K \circ d + d \circ K = \hat 1^* - \hat 0^*,
$$
where $\hat 1$ and $\hat 0$ are the maps defined from ${\rm Paths}(X)$ to $X$ by $\hat 1(\gamma) = \gamma(1)$ and $\hat 0(\gamma) = \gamma(0)$.

**Proposition** Let $X$ and $X'$ be two diffeological spaces, let $f_0$ and $f_1$ be two homotopic smooth maps from $X$ to $X'$, let $\alpha$ be a closed $p$-form on $X'$. The pullbacks $f_0^*(\alpha)$ and $f_1^*(\alpha)$ are cohomologous.

**Proof** Let $\varphi : X \to {\rm Paths}(X')$ be the map defined by $\varphi(x) = [t \mapsto f_t(x)]$. The pullback by $\varphi$ of the identity $K(d\alpha) + d(K\alpha) = {\hat 1^*}(\alpha) - {\hat 0^*}(\alpha)$ gives $d(\varphi^*(K\alpha)) = f_1^*(\alpha) - f_0^*(\alpha)$. $\square$

This is an example of simplification/generalization of a classical theorem by short-cuting the proof through diffeology. Here also the space of paths of a diffeological space, and the Chain-Homotopy operator, are crucial. May be something more fundamental is hidden behind that. Enxin Wu a Dan Christensen student is working on a possible Quillen model based on diffeology, it will give maybe some lighting on this question?

BTW Frölicher spaces is equivalent to the full subcategory of what we call "reflexive diffeological spaces" (a work in progress with Y. Karshon and al), the ones whose diffeology is completely defined by the real smooth maps. They are the "intersection" of the category {Diffeology} and the category {Sikorski}. There are nice examples and counter-examples which illustrate the difference between these categories.

concretecategories for which the underlying functor to sets is faithful, and for this reason the tangent space functor is not representable in such categories (because it has just one point). It wasn't clear to me that you meant to restrict to such concrete categories. It's true that Moerdijk-Reyes spend some time on model-building (as is clear from the title), but there's also some material on classical applications to connections and sprays, to illustrate the directness of synthetic reasoning. – Todd Trimble♦ Feb 11 '11 at 21:43