The question can be written as follows: Given two positive integers $a$ and $b$, do there exist primes $p$ and $q$ such that
You would expect there to be not just one such pair of primes, but infinitely many pairs. For instance, if $a=2$ and $b=1$, then $q$ is a Sophie Germain prime, and everyone expects there to be infinitely many of those. Moreover, you should be able to replace the right side of the equation with a constant $c$, i.e.,
The twin prime conjecture says that there are infinitely many solutions when $a=b=1$ and $c=2$. Polignac's conjecture implies infinitely many solutions when $a=b=1$ and for every even value of $c$. In general you should expect infinitely many solutions when there isn't some obvious congruence that forces finiteness; for instance obviously $a=b=c=1$ only has one solution. Moreover, it's natural to expect a specific slowly decreasing density of solutions using a heuristic estimate derived from the prime number theorem.
This question for all suitable $a$, $b$, and $c$ is in turn a special case of yet more general questions about linear patterns in the prime numbers. For instance, the statement that there are infinitely many arithmetic progressions of length 3 in the primes is the statement that there are infinitely many solutions to
$$p-q = q - r > 0.$$
Now, it's a famous theorem of Tao and Green that there are infinitely many arithmetic progressions of primes of arbitrary length. Later Tao and Green did a more systematic study that established the existence of all kinds of linear patterns in the prime numbers. However, the Sieprinski-Schnizel conjecture, and its generalization in the previous paragraph, are part of the "rank 1 case" that they did not solve. (These are just my mental notes from a survey talk by Terry Tao that I once attended.) If they could have done the rank 1 case, it would have included the twin prime conjecture and I think that it would have implied the asymptotic Goldbach conjecture too, so that would have been even more amazing than what they did accomplish.
I have no idea whether this remaining rank 1 case is the same class of question as the Tao-Green results, but just harder; or whether it is so much harder that it is in a different class. Let's optimistically say that it's the former. If so, then what makes the Schinzel-Sierpinski conjecture interesting is that you should always expect infinitely many solutions in prime numbers to linear equations, unless there are only finitely many solutions because of a simple congruence. And I might say that the Tao-Green results are the main recent progress, even though they answered different questions.