There are precisely two books on Arakelov geometry. One by Lang and one by Soule. I would love to see a book written on the subject which focuses mainly on the two dimensional (and one-dimensional) case. Sections 8.3 and 9.1 of Liu's book do this greatly for example (but considers only intersection multiplicities at the finite points). It should include all the theorems done so far. Something like

Chapter 0. Prerequisites

Chapter 1.
Arithmetic curves (Riemann-Roch, slopes method, etc. One should include a paragraph or appendix on algebraic curves stating all the theorems that can and have been generalized.)

(N.B. An arithmetic curve is the spec of a ring of integers.)

Chapter 2.
Arithmetic surfaces (This would contain all the "arithmetic" analogues of the theorems mentioned in the Appendix. For example, there has been a lot of work on Riemann-Roch theorems, trace formulas, Dirichlet's higher-dimensional unit theorem, Bogomolov inequalities, etc. Also, there are four intersection theories (which are compatible) I know of at the moment. The one developed by Arakelov-Faltings, then Gillet-Soule, then Bost and then Kuhn. The book should include a detailed description of them.

Appendix A.
Algebraic surfaces. (A survey of all the classical theorems for algebraic surfaces that have an analogue in Arakelov geometry. This includes Faltings' generalizations of the Riemann-Roch theorem, Noether theorem, etc. but also the theorems generalized to Arakelov theory by Gasbarri, Tang, Rossler, Kuhn, Moriwaki, Bost, etc.)

Appendix B.
Riemann surfaces (Just the necessary. Differential forms and Green functions basically.)

reallylike this question... hopefully someone will take a hint and write number (5) and (2) sometime soon! – Dylan Wilson Jan 24 '11 at 10:30Hilbert's Problemsbook (in the Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Math series) from the 1970s. Also, Deligne's articleWeil Iis less technical than you might guess, and there is also the textbook by Freitag and Kiehl. – Emerton Jan 24 '11 at 12:44