Here is one algorithmification (if I may coin a word!) of Mondrian paintings, by
Tom Gedeon, "Neural Network for Modeling Esthetic Selection,"
Neural Information Processing,
Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2008, Volume 4985/2008, 666-674.
From the Abstract:
Our domain is the automatic generation of Mondrian-like images with an interactive interface for the user to select images.
Here is one of the figures from the paper:
(The Springer link needs an access subscription. Here is a Google books link.)
Gedeon cites an analysis of Mondrian paintings by the physicist Richard Taylor:
"Fractal Expressionism - Where Art Meets Science," Art And Complexity, Ed. J. Casti and A. Karlqvist, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (2003).
Here is a second: "The Mondrian Process" by Daniel Roy and Yee Teh,
Adv. in Neural Inform. Processing Syst, 21, p.27, 2009. From the Abstract:
We describe a novel class of distributions, which we call Mondrian processes, which can be interpreted as probability distributions over $k$d-tree data structures.
Here is their first figure: