The first infinite cardinal, $\aleph_0$, has many large cardinal properties (or would have many large cardinal properties if not deliberately excluded). For example, if you do not impose uncountability as part of the definition, then $\aleph_0$ would be the first inaccessible cardinal, the first weakly compact cardinal, the first measureable cardinal, and the first strongly compact cardinal. This is not universally true ($\aleph_0$ is not a Mahlo cardinal), so I am wondering how widespread of a phenomenon is this. Which large cardinal properties are satisfied by $\aleph_0$, and which are not?

There is a philosophical position I have seen argued, that the set-theoretic universe should be uniform, in that if something happens at $\aleph_0$, then it should happen again. I have seen it specifically used to argue for the existence of an inaccessible cardinal, for example. The same argument can be made to work for weakly compact, measurable, and strongly compact cardinals. Are these the only large cardinal notions where it can be made to work? (Trivially, the same argument shows that there's a second inaccessible, a second measurable, etc., but when does the argument lead to more substantial jump?)

EDIT: Amit Kumar Gupta has given a terrific summary of what holds for individual large cardinals. Taking the philosophical argument seriously, this means that there's a kind of break in the large cardinal hierarchy. If you believe this argument for large cardinals, then it will lead you to believe in stuff like Ramsey cardinals, ineffable cardinals, etc. (since measurable cardinals have all those properties), but this argument seems to peter out after a countable number of strongly compact cardinals. This doesn't seem to be of interest in current set-theoretical research, but I still find it pretty interesting.

`$\aleph_0$`

. – Andreas Blass Nov 9 '10 at 16:17