It's hard not to be amused and perhaps even amazed when first encountering Fürstenberg's clever "topological" proof that there are infinitely many primes. Closer inspection, however, reveals the disappointing truth that there really isn't anything topological going on there, as pointed out by BCnrd in a comment to this answer.

Nevertheless, the topology on $\mathbb{Z}$ introduced in the proof, where an open set is defined as any union of arithmetic sequences, does seem both natural and interesting.

My question is this: Can anything useful be done with this topology? Useful would include a new theorem, a simplification to a proof of a known result, or even fresh insight into standard material.