If $X$ is an algebraic stack fibered in sets (and therefore essentially a sheaf), is it an algebraic space? It seems conceivable that at least when $X$ is DeligneMumford, it is actually an algebraic space. However, when $X$ is an Artin stack, it is only required to have an atlas of smooth maps of affines, so it seems less likely that this would be the case.

Yes. The criterion for an Artin stack to be DeligneMumford is that it should have unramified diagonal (this is somewhere in Laumon Moret Bailly, I don't have it here). If the stack is fibered in sets, the diagonal is a monomorphism, and a monomorphism is certainly unramified. 

