MathOverflow is a question and answer site for professional mathematicians. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top


Can we simplify the expression above?

share|cite|improve this question

closed as too localized by Ben Webster Oct 2 '10 at 3:51

This question is unlikely to help any future visitors; it is only relevant to a small geographic area, a specific moment in time, or an extraordinarily narrow situation that is not generally applicable to the worldwide audience of the internet. For help making this question more broadly applicable, visit the help center.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

This type of expression is very well known. See Concrete Mathematics by Graham, Knuth, and Patashnik, particularly table 174 (p. 174). – Todd Trimble Oct 2 '10 at 0:21
(I should have paused; this looks like homework.) – Todd Trimble Oct 2 '10 at 0:23