Let $C$ be a complex smooth projective curve of genus $g$ and let $N$ be the number of effective theta-characteristics of $C$, or equivalently, the number of points of order two on the theta divisor of $J(C)$.

It is known that, if $C$ is generic, $N$ is the number of the odd theta characteristics. Mumford proves that on a principally polarized abelian variety the theta divisor cannot contain all the points of order two. It follows that $N<2^{2g}$.

Given an arbitrary curve $C$, is it known a upper bound for $N$ depending on $g$?