Mathematics is an activity of investigation and exploration. Informally, both calculi and an algebras are tools which consist of sets of symbols and systems of rules (usually called axioms) for manipulating those symbols.
Calculi tend to be specified/defined/explored/used to answer questions of "calculation" or reckoning, in some very general sense. Calculi tend to be used to investigate properties of objects (i.e "What is the area under the curve?")
Algebras tend to be specified/defined/explored/used to answer questions about how different "things" are related, in some very general sense. Algebras tend to be used to study the relationship between objects. (i.e. "Is this equation 'the same' as that equation?")
I think it is safe to say that the term "algebra" today, carries a bit more meaning to most mathematicians than the general teram "calculus".
The Calculus (as taught in high-school or undergraduate university), also known as "infinitesimal calculus", is a calculus focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. It is chiefly concerned with calculations or answering questions about change. The Calculus uses the complex numbers (chiefly) as a foundation for this investigation.
Opening a book on computer science, you might find a "calculus of computation" which might involve symbols and rules which let one "calculate" or "discover" behavioral properties of a computer program. As a foundation, such a calculus might use "states" and "transitions", instead of the complex numbers, to ground the investigation.
Elementary Algebra (ie. high-school algebra) is, informally, the study of relationships of variables and structures (e.g. equations) arising from combining variables according to certain rules (i.e. performing "operations"). It uses the complex numbers as the basic foundation in which one could "check" or "verify" statements, but quickly one finds that "calculating with numbers" is not that useful (or practical) in investigating relationships between equations.
"The general theory of arithmetic operations is algebra: so we can also develop an algebra of set theory." - Concepts of Modern Mathematics, Ian Stewart
In that sense, Elementary Algebra is more "abstract" than arithmetic, and is often the subject where schools (specifically bad teachers) lose a student's interest and attention in mathematics. It is a tragedy, since it is exactly at Elementary Algebra that things get interesting.
In computer science or other engineering disciplines, you might find a "process algebra" when reasoning about how various states of a computer program relate to each other. We can ask questions like "is a specification of a collection of processes 'functionally equivalent' to another specification (i.e do they do the same thing? as in the case of a particular hardware design versus a software program)? The same "process algebra" could possibly be used to reason about how the various "states" of a garage door opener relate to each. Such an algebra might use states, transitions, and time as a foundation.