The Perron-Frobenius theorem says that the largest eigenvalue of a positive real matrix (all entries positive) is real. Moreover, that eigenvalue has a positive eigenvector, and it is the only eigenvalue having a positive eigenvector.
Now suppose we want to construct a positive rational matrix with a particular Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue. Specifically, consider a positive real algebraic number $\lambda$ which is greater in absolute value than all of its Galois conjugates. Does there exist a positive rational matrix $A$ with $\lambda$ as its Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue?