Here is a broader setup for your question. Let $A$ be a Dedekind domain with fraction field $F$, $E/F$ be a finite Galois extension, and $B$ be the integral closure of $A$ in $E$.
Pick a prime $\mathfrak p$ in $A$ and a prime $\mathfrak P$ in $B$ lying over $\mathfrak p$.
The decomposition group $D(\mathfrak P|\mathfrak p)$ naturally maps by reduction mod $\mathfrak P$ to the automorphism group $\text{Aut}((B/\mathfrak P)/(A/\mathfrak p))$ and Frobenius showed this is surjective. The kernel is the inertia group, so if $\mathfrak p$ is unramified in $B$ then we get an isomorphism from $D(\mathfrak P|\mathfrak p)$ to $\text{Aut}((B/\mathfrak P)/(A/\mathfrak p))$, whose inverse is an embedding
of the automorphism group of the residue field extension into $\text{Gal}(E/F)$.

If we take $A = {\mathbf Z}$ then we're in the number field situation and this is where Frobenius elements in Galois groups come from.

In your case you want to take $A = {\mathbf Q}[t]$, so $F = {\mathbf Q}(t)$.
You did not give any assumptions about $f(x,t)$ as a polynomial in ${\mathbf Q}[x,t]$. (Stylistic quibble: I think it is better to write the polynomial as $f(t,x)$, specializing the first variable, but I'll use your notation.) Let's assume $f(x,t)$ is absolutely irreducible, so the ring $A' = {\mathbf Q}[x,t]/(f)$ is integrally closed. [EDIT: I should have included the assumption that $f$ is smooth, as otherwise $A'$ will *not* be integrally closed, but this "global" int. closed business is actually not so important. See comments below.] Write $F'$ for the fraction field of $A'$. After a linear change of variables we can assume $f(x,t)$ has a constant coefficient for the highest power of $x$, so $A'$ is the integral closure of $A$ in $F'$.

Saying for some rational $t_0$ that the specialization $g(x) = f(x,t_0)$ is separable in ${\mathbf Q}[x] = (A/(t-t_0))[x]$ implies the prime $(t-t_0)$ is unramified in $A'$. Let $E$ be the Galois closure of $F'/F$ and $B$ be the integral closure of $A$ in $E$. A prime ideal that is unramified in a finite extension is unramified in the Galois closure, so $(t-t_0)$ is unramified in $B$. For any prime $\mathfrak P$ in $B$ that lies over $(t-t_0)$, the
residue field $B/\mathfrak P$ is a finite extension of $A/(t-t_0) = \mathbf Q$ and since
$E/F$ is Galois the field $B/\mathfrak P$ is normal over $A/(t-t_0)$. These residue fields have characteristic 0, so they're separable: $B/\mathfrak P$ is a finite Galois extension of $\mathbf Q$. I leave it to you to check that $B/\mathfrak P$ is the Galois closure of $g(x) = f(t_0,x)$ over $\mathbf Q$. Then the isomorphism of $D(\mathfrak P|(t-t_0))$ with $\text{Aut}((B/\mathfrak P)/\mathbf Q) = \text{Gal}((B/\mathfrak P)/\mathbf Q)$ provides (by looking at the inverse map) an embedding of the Galois group of $g$ over $\mathbf Q$ into the Galois group of $f(x,t)$ over $F = {\mathbf Q}(t)$.

I agree with Damiano that there are problems when the specialization is not separable. In that case what happens is that the Galois group of the residue field extension is identified not with the decomposition group (a subgroup of the Galois group of $E/F$) but with the quotient group $D/I$ where $I = I(\mathfrak P|\mathfrak p)$ is the inertia group, and you don't generally expect a proper quotient group of a subgroup to naturally embed into the original group.