Let $w$ be a state on the quotient C$^*$-algebra $\ell_\infty / c_0$ (bounded sequences quotient out convergent to zero sequences). Then the functional
$$
\mathrm{Tr}_w(A) = w ( \{ \frac{1}{\log (1+n)} \sum_{j=1}^n \lambda(n,A) \}_{n=1}^\infty )
$$
is a trace on the ideal of compact operators (on a separable Hilbert space) such that
$\mu(n,A) = O(n^{-1})$, $n \geq 1$. Here $\lambda$ denotes the sequence of eigenvalues of the compact operator $A$ ordered so that the sequence of absolute values $| \lambda |$ is a decreasing sequence, and $\mu$ denotes the sequence of singular values (eigenvalues of the absolute value of $A$). If $A_{\mathrm{harmonic}} = \mathrm{diag}(n^{-1})$ (any diagonal operator with the harmonic series as the diagonal) then $\mathrm{Tr}_w(A_{\mathrm{harmonic}})=1$. This is a regularisation of the harmonic series.

Traces on compact operators, thinking of compact operators as noncommutative generalisations of convergent to zero sequences, form summing procedures on these "noncommutative $c_0$ sequences". The trace $\mathrm{Tr}_w$ above is called a Dixmier trace, after the French mathematician Jacques Dixmier who described it in 1968. It has been popularised by Alain Connes in his version of Noncommutative Geometry (Academic Press, 1994). Dixmier traces are not the only traces on the ideal of compact operators such that
$\mu(n,A) = O(n^{-1})$, and there exist other traces $\varphi$ such that $\varphi(A_{\mathrm{harmonic}}) = 1$. Dixmier traces generalise the zeta function residue regularisation and the high temperature (or short time) heat kernel regularisation.
Thus the zeta function residue regularisation is not the only regularisation possible.

There exist many traces defined on certain ideals besides just the canonical trace on the trace class operators (trace class operators are the noncommutative version of the summable sequences $\ell_1$). Deep results are known about which ideals admit non-trivial traces, which translates as meaning which rates of divergence (of convergent to zero sequences) admit a non-trivial summing procedure. See the book "Singular Traces", De Gruyter 2012 (admission of vested interest: I am one of the authors). The harmonic series fortunately admits a rich non-trivial range of summing procedures. Contrast with $\ell_p$ sequences for $p > 1$ whose associated ideals have no non-trivial traces, and sequences $O(n^{-p})$, $p > 1$, whose associated ideals also have no non-trivial traces.