Off hand, does anyone know of some useful conditions for checking if a ring (or more generally a semiring) has non-trivial derivations? (By non-trivial, I mean they do not squish everything down to the additive identity.) Part of the motivation for this is that I was thinking about it the other day, and had trouble finding any good example of a semiring with an interesting derivation.

For example, the multiplicative Banach algebra of positive functions is an algebra of the semifield of nonnegative reals. However, the usual definition for derivative breaks down due to the fact that you can have positive functions with negative slope. So, this leads me to wonder if there are any semirings with derivations at all?

As a related question, is there a known classification of all the derivations for an algebra? It feels like this should be a pretty standard thing, but I don't think I've ever encountered it in one of my courses and my initial googling around was not too successful at finding references.