Where can I find a comprehensive treatment of this important result at the level of a very advanced undergraduate/beginning graduate student? What works develop the relevant material in a cohesive and readable way? Assume only a familiarity with basic homological algebra and ring theory on the part of the reader in assessing this question, please. Thank you!
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The place I learned it from is Chapter 19 of Eisenbud's Commutative Algebra. Most of the proofs in that section do not use material from previous chapters if I recall correctly. The route (which I think is what you are looking for) is to construct the Koszul complex of the residue field of a regular (graded) local ring and also prove the symmetry of the Tor functor, and then use these two facts to get finite global dimension which implies Hilbert's syzygy theorem. 


HiltonStammbach's book on homological algebra is nice and includes that result, if I recall correctly I am partial to CartanEilenberg's book, though! 

