Many of the examples mentioned go back to earlier centuries, when insulated national traditions and slow communications promoted mistaken labelling of results and concepts. A much more recent example from the 1950s involves the notion of Bruhat ordering on a general Coxeter group, motivated at first by the example of finite crystallographic reflection groups in Lie theory. The name seems to have been suggested by D.N. Verma in the late 1960s. For some reason the ordering itself fails to appear (even in the exercises) in Bourbaki's influential 1968 Chapters IV-VI dealing with Coxeter groups, root systems, Weyl groups and affine Weyl groups. Deodhar and others propagated the term "Bruhat ordering" in their papers, and as late as 1990 I routinely used this term in my book Reflection Groups and Coxeter Groups. But by then Borel, who had gotten more deeply involved in sorting out the history of Lie theory, objected that the ordering was not at all found in Bruhat's development of the Bruhat decomposition but had occurred for Weyl groups in Chevalley's treatment of the partial ordering of closures of Bruhat cells (Schubert varieties) in the flag variety.
As a result many of us now try in principle to start with something like Chevalley-Bruhat ordering (shortened to Bruhat ordering) or even Chevalley ordering. But this runs counter to a large body of literature including the 1979 Kazhdan-Lusztig paper.
Side remark: While Coxeter was the first to recognize the special presentation of a finite real reflection group that led to the term Coxeter group in Bourbaki, the general definition owes at least as much to people like Iwahori and Tits. Coxeter was interested in traditional (often intricate) combinatorial geometry and not in Lie theory or its generalizations. But short labels are easier to invent and tend to stick.